Bonsai

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Bonsai
Bonsai
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bonsai
bonsai

Bonsai art translated into Russian means "a tree in a pot". This art arose in 200 BC. e. in China, or rather initially it sounded like "pan-san". Several centuries later, the Japanese, together with Buddhism, mastered this art, brought it to perfection, and now it is considered traditionally Japanese.

The first images of bonsai literally - hatitue, are found on the scrolls of the late Kamakura period (1249-1382). The love for bonsai can be explained simply - not having a large territory and the opportunity to grow a garden near the house, the Japanese wanted to find a corner of nature at home, and small trees did not take up much space. At first it was a massive hobby, mainly among the common people. Much later, after the victory over China in 1885, bonsai became the subject of fashion, scientific research and collectibles. Various bonsai schools and growing styles began to emerge.

About 400 species of plants are suitable and bred for creating bonsai. A real bonsai has dimensions from 20 cm to 1.5-2 m. A special direction is the creation of miniature landscapes, where not one tree is grown in a bowl, but a whole piece of nature, with a lake, stones, miniature mountains and even waterfalls. Bonsai art does not tolerate fuss, it requires patient care. Bonsai maintenance is a kind of ritual and meditation. The trees have been cultivated for decades and centuries. There are bonsai specimens in the imperial garden in Japan that are about 300-400 years old.

From all that has been said, it follows that a true bonsai must bear the stamp of the times. Therefore, bonsai are primarily trees with thick trunks. Bizarrely bent or broken branches, trunks with cracked or peeled bark, covered with moss are especially appreciated. All this symbolizes long-term survival in difficult natural conditions and emphasizes naturalness.

Plants for bonsai

Not every plant is suitable for growing as a bonsai. Although there are styles in bonsai art in which the composition is formed from herbaceous plants, traditionally bonsai are grown from trees and shrubs, i.e. plants with a hard, often lignified trunk and branches. The most valuable coniferous trees: pine, juniper, thuja, cypress, larch, as they are quite hardy and a piece of the world around us looks very unusual in miniature. In addition to conifers, hardwoods are often grown as bonsai - maple, birch, mountain ash, oak, beech, hornbeam, willow, etc. Fruiting and flowering trees look especially colorful - acacia, guayava, pomegranate, myrtle, magnolia, peach, plum, citrus. In any case, the choice of a plant is determined by the conditions of detention - primarily the temperature. If the room is cool,then you can take on conifers, if the room is hot, especially in winter, then the choice is limited to thermophilic plants (ficus, dracaena, cordilina, gardenia).

  • Adenium obese
  • Acacia
  • Albicia comb-shaped, Leonkaran
  • Bamboo
  • Bauhinia Blanca, variegated, purple
  • Japanese Beresklest
  • Japanese privet
  • Rock brachychiton
  • Bougainvillea smooth, beautiful
  • Small-leaved elm
  • Gardenia jasmine
  • Cooper's hibiscus, dissected by the petal
  • Nana common pomegranate
  • Dovialis kaffra
  • Cork oak, rocky
  • Evgenia one-flowered
  • Honeysuckle brilliant
  • Strawberry large-fruited, small-fruited
  • Ixora sticking out
  • Casuarina tuberous, protruding, horsetail
  • Calliandra Tveda
  • Callistemon willow, large-spotted, lemon yellow, beautiful
  • Camellia Chinese, netted, Japanese
  • Arizona cypress, evergreen, Kashmir, large-fruited
  • Kneorum three-root
  • Koprosma Bauer, Kirk
  • Corokia rod-shaped
  • Oval kumquat, Japanese hinds
  • Kufea hyssopolis
  • Lagerstremia Indian, beautiful
  • Cistus
  • Lafoenzia pomegranate
  • Leptospermum rod-shaped
  • Formosan liquidambre
  • Malpighia naked, nut-bearing
  • European olive
  • Melaleuk white-woody, St.
  • Metrosideros high
  • Mirsina African
  • Common myrtle
  • Myrcinaria color
  • Balsamic spurge
  • Muraya Konta, paniculata
  • Nandina home
  • Nicodemia varifolia
  • Pelargonium semifold, zonal, ivy, curly, strong-smelling
  • Podocarpus large-leaved, Nagi, sickle-shaped, gray-gray, thin
  • Polisias Balfour, Gulfola, holly
  • Portulacaria harp
  • Rapis high, low
  • Rhododendron sims
  • Medicinal rosemary
  • Sageretia tea
  • Small-leaved boxwood, evergreen
  • Serissa or "tree of a thousand stars"
  • Syzygium paniculata
  • Wavy resin seed, Tobira, fine-leaved
  • Scots pine, Mediterranean
  • Sophora creeping, four-winged
  • Fat woman pale green
  • Asian trachelospermum, jasmine, Japanese
  • Trichodiadema calvatum, Littlewood, bulbous
  • Feijoa Sellovana
  • Ficus benjamin, boxwood
  • Figs are dwarf, small-fruited, box-leaved, subulate
  • Mastic pistachio
  • Fuchsia hybrid, small-flowered, rare-flowered, thyme-leaved, three-leafed
  • Holarrena pubescent
  • Citrofortunella small-fruited
  • Citrus fruits: orange, bitter orange, real lime, lime, lemon, tangerine, etc.
  • Eucalyptus (various types)
  • Eretia small-leaved
  • Jacobinia maloflower
  • Ash Griffith

Common bonsai styles

It should be noted that there are a lot of styles and forms of bonsai, sometimes even a grown tree can be attributed not to one, but to several styles.

Styles differ in the complexity of shaping their appearance and care. The chosen bonsai style determines both the size and shape of the pot or container for planting, and the frequency and technique of watering, etc. For example, the so-called cascading styles are rather unstable, since the crown of the tree deviates from the center to one degree or another, they require a more stable capacity, i.e. wider or heavier.

Tekkan or symmetrical
Tekkan or symmetrical
Shakan
Shakan

Tekkan or symmetrical - a single, upright tree with powerful roots and trunk. On the lower part of the trunk, branches are usually absent, so the bark and powerful roots are clearly visible. The three main branches are located in the middle of the trunk. The tekkan style is suitable for trees of all species, but most often conifers (pine, spruce, juniper) or fruit trees (orange, cherry, peach, plum, apple) are grown.

Shakan or oblique - a tree has a trunk, branches and leaves slightly inclined to the side. This style symbolizes a plant that resists the wind.

Kengai
Kengai
Khan-kangap
Khan-kangap

Kengai or bent by the wind - symbolizes a tree bent by the wind. The plant has a trunk strongly inclined towards the pot and even lower. The branches should be directed in one direction, while there may be branches on one side of the trunk. A higher container is recommended for stability.

Khan-kangap or semi-cascade - the plant has a trunk that grows up and then tilts to the side, sometimes to the base of the container. The tree seems to hang over the cliff. A higher container is recommended for stability.

Kabudati
Kabudati
Ese-ue
Ese-ue

Kabudachi or Forked Trunk - This bonsai has two trunks that differ in length and thickness. They form a common crown. You can simulate a forked trunk by planting two plants in one hole, but this is done in such a way as to give the impression that they have a common base and roots.

Ese-ue or multi-stemmed is a whole grove or part of a forest, since the composition consists of several plants. Trees must fit together, and each tree must take its place.

Hokidachi
Hokidachi
Sharimiki
Sharimiki

Hokidachi or broom - the plant should have a straight trunk and a crown that resembles a broom. The crown can be formed by several branches, while the ratio of crown size to trunk length should be equal to 2: 1.

Sharimiki - "dead wood" - the trunk of the tree has no bark, so that the trunk of the plant seems to be dead. Areas of dead wood are created artificially; for this, certain pieces of bark are cut off, then bleached.

  • Sekizhezhu or rock is a composition on the rocks. In this style, trees are grown with a spreading crown and a well-developed root system: azalea, cherry, maple, oak, plum.
  • Moegi or free vertical - the trunk of the tree bends, and the bends of the trunk towards the top of the tree decrease, and it is centered with the base of the trunk.
  • Bunzings or the form of "Japanese text" - most of the trunk has no leaves or branches, the crown is formed only at the top of the tree. The trunk can be upright or sloped.
  • Ikadabuki or raft shape - the trunk of the tree lies on the surface of the ground, branches are left only from the top and they should grow vertically upwards.
  • Bancan is one of the more complex styles in which the trunk of the plant is simply twisted into a knot.
  • Neagari is a style in which the roots of a tree protrude and rise above the ground. For the formation of bonsai of this style, tropical plants are used that form aerial roots.

Growing bonsai

A few rules and recommendations for those who are going to grow bonsai:

  • Look for plants that are resistant to local climates or can survive indoors all year round.
  • Do not use plants with large leaves, flowers, or fruits as bonsai.
  • Identify not only the family, but also the type of bonsai plant.
  • Use simple bowls with drainage holes, do not use an oversized container, and place plants correctly according to style.
  • To create a composition, do not use objects that are not intended for this, for example, iron parts.
  • When forming the crown and shape, observe the principle of naturalness - the composition should look as natural as possible.
  • Keep a diary, which will record all the procedures and work on the care of the bonsai, dates and times.
  • The choice of capacity, soil, transplanting, watering, fertilizing with fertilizers
  • Placing, creating a traditional bonsai, shaping a crown or pruning a bonsai

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