Table of contents:
- Indoor violet
- Saintpaulia care
- How to transplant a violet
- Reproduction of violets
- Problems of growing violets and care errors
The Gesnerian family. Homeland of Saintpaulias Uzambara mountains of Africa. This plant is a favorite of many flower growers. Natural uzambara violets are distinguished by a variety of colors and shapes of flowers and leaves. But thanks to collecting and selection, which lasted more than one century, so varied and numerous varieties of violets were bred that whole catalogs were created to describe them. We will try to present the most necessary information about these wonderful plants. Although many who begin to breed Saintpaulias, they wonder what kind of variety has blossomed on their windowsill.
Violets are classified primarily by the color and shape of the flowers and by the type of flower:
Simple violets have a five-petal corolla; the color can be very diverse. The classic violet has two upper petals slightly smaller than the lower and side ones:
Two-color violets - these varieties always have two colors on the background, rounded spots, without clear boundaries:
Bordered Saintpaulias have a border around the edge of the petal. The width and color of both the petals themselves and the border can be different (one or two colors). The room temperature affects the width of the border. In hot conditions, the border may disappear completely, and when the plant is placed in cooler conditions, the border will appear again:
Chimera - these varieties of violets have stripes of different colors, diverging in the middle of the petal from the center of the flower. When propagated by leaf cuttings, the pattern is not transmitted, these violets are propagated by dividing the bush or side stepsons:
Fancy Saintpaulias - have a variety of blotches of different colors and shapes on their petals. But such violets are very demanding on the conditions of detention. If these conditions are violated, the flowers of fantasy violets acquire a monochromatic color. In addition, when fancy violets are propagated by a leaf cuttings, the color of the flowers is also lost or it does not appear completely:
Star-shaped type - the petals are all the same size, slightly pointed at the end, the shape of the flower resembles a star:
Some varieties of violets have additional underdeveloped petals in the center of the flower, and depending on the number of these petals, violets are classified as:
Semi-double violets - have 1-2 additional petals in the center:
Terry violets - with a large number of additional petals. The arrangement of these petals is different for different varieties, some take the shape of a ball, others are flatter:
In addition, Saintpaulias are classified by leaf type. Leaves can be pure green, with a white border around the edge, or spots - white or light green. Additionally violets are distinguished as 'boy' - a common green leaf from the stem, and 'girl' - there is a light spot at the base.
In varieties 'lance' - the leaves are longer and sharper at the end, the leaves of 'spoon' have edges curled towards the top:
Leaves can also be smooth, corrugated, serrated, or wavy. The pubescence of the leaves can also be different - there are smooth-leaved forms, there are densely pubescent and rarely pubescent.
Violets can differ in the size of the whole plant. The most common "size" is 20-40 cm in diameter of the rosette, but there are also large varieties, reaching from 40 to 60 cm, and there are miniature ones up to 15 cm, there are even microminiatures up to 6 cm in diameter. It should be noted that the size of the plant is largely dependent on the size of the pot and potting soil. On nutrient soil in a large pot, even a miniature violet will grow to medium size. There are also ampelous Saintpaulias, their foliage is more voluminous, and the stems fall off, hanging over the edge of the pot.
- Buying an uzambar violet
- Features of caring for variegated varieties of violets
- Features of breeding Saintpaulia 'Chimera'
The window sill of the western window, in summer it is very hot, burns may remain on the leaves, therefore on sunny days from 4 pm a curtain made of white fabric is lowered on the window. But it's already autumn, the sun is decreasing, so shading is not needed - additional lighting is needed.
Moderate, optimal for growth and flowering 21-24 ° C, no sharp fluctuations. Winter is not lower than 16 ° C. Saintpaulias do not tolerate cold drafts and do not like intense heat, temperatures above 28 ° C already suspend plant growth.
Bright light, shaded from direct sunlight during the hottest hours. The best place is the sill of the east or northwest window. It is very hot on the south window, as well as on the west - shading will be required from 12 to 16 hours. It is desirable that the light illuminates the plant evenly from all sides, for which they are periodically turned on the window. In order to achieve flowering of Saintpaulias, artificial lighting is used all year round. It is best to use 40W fluorescent lamps or LED lamps with a conventional 7-14W base. They are placed at a height of about 20 cm from the shelf with plants. The duration of artificial lighting is 14 hours a day.
Watering violets is carried out depending on the temperature - in hot summer or winter weather with the heating on, the soil dries out much faster than in spring and autumn, when the heating has already been turned off or has not yet been turned on, and it is quite cold and damp outside. Therefore, the violets are watered as the earthen coma dries up - before the next watering, it is necessary for it to dry in the upper third of the pot. Water for irrigation is used at room temperature or 2-3 degrees higher, soft, separated for at least 12 hours. When watering, try to keep the water out of the leaves.
Violets can be watered from the pallet - for this they are immersed in a bowl of warm water for 3-5 minutes, then the water is allowed to drain, no water should remain in the pan of the pot. But it's better to make a watering device: take an empty rod from the gel pen, cut off the tip. Pick up a drill of equal diameter and drill a hole in the plastic bottle cap, insert a tube into it. When watering, the tubule easily enters between the leaves and water does not get on them.
Saintpaulias love humid air (about 50-60%). But it is undesirable to spray them - only during extreme heat, not the bushes themselves, but the air around them with a very fine spray. And for moistening, place the pots of plants on a tray with wet pebbles or wet moss so that moisture does not get into the pot. If there is a central heating battery nearby - hang with wet towels - this becomes necessary on very cold days in winter, when the heating is roasting to the full, and even hair and clothes begin to electrify from dryness.
How to transplant a violet
These violets are planted in an oversized container, you need to put the kids in separate pots.
To grow violets, use fairly wide pots, small in height, the size of the pot should correspond to the size of the plant. Young plants with only a few leaves (reproduction in spring) are planted in small pots, 5-7 cm in diameter. Then (in the summer), they are transplanted into large pots about 9 cm in diameter. Miniature varieties of violets are grown in pots 3-4 cm in diameter (these are sold under cacti in flower shops). The best pot for Saintpaulias is the one in which the height is the same as the width, since the roots of these plants do not grow deeply.
If you cannot decide on the size, we give a hint - the pot needs such a diameter that the leaves of the violet bush placed in it extend beyond it by half the length of the leaf or a little more. If saintpaulias are planted in pots that are too large, the probability of waterlogging is very high. The earth dries out for a long time, roots rot, soil pests start (puffs, springtails or mushroom mosquitoes).
Soil for violets should have an acidity of pH 5.5-6.5 - this is a weakly acidic reaction. There are many soil options for Saintpaulias, here are approximate ones:
- 2 parts of leafy land, 1 part of turf, 1 part of coniferous, 1 part of river sand, 1 part of vermiculite.
- 2 parts of leafy soil, 1 part of coconut substrate (from briquettes), 1 part of well-rotted humus flour, 0.5 part of chopped pine bark,
- 1 part of sod land, 1 part of coniferous land, 1 part of vermiculite, 0.5 part of coarse river sand.
- 5 parts store-bought soil for violets (or universal), 1 part vermiculite, 1 part chopped sphagnum moss or chopped pine bark.
Leafy soil is harvested in early spring, in a birch forest, as soon as the snow melts, remove last year's leaf litter and scrape up the earth. Sod land can be dug in a meadow by removing the top layer of sod. Coniferous land, respectively, in the coniferous undergrowth. All the soil must be sorted out from branches and leaves and must be sterilized in the oven (40-60 minutes) or in the microwave at full power (10-15 minutes). The sand should be used only coarse, washed, ideally - very small pebbles of 1-2 mm. Sand and vermiculite are neutral and act as a baking powder.
You can also use purchased mixtures "Violet" and the like - more about the soil for violets
Reproduction of violets
Usually leafy cuttings, part of the leaf and daughter rosettes.
The most common breeding method is by leaf cuttings. This requires a healthy, formed leaf (whether the mother plant is blooming does not matter). The length of the petiole should be 3-4 cm, with an oblique cut. It is better to put the stalk in water until the roots form. If the cutting is immediately planted in the ground, then, firstly, the soil must be loose, not compacted, and secondly, the cutting is placed in the soil to a depth of 1.5 - 2 cm, no more.
A pot with a handle is watered with warm water and covered with a plastic bag to preserve moisture, or placed in a room greenhouse. The temperature should be at least 20-21 ° C. Root formation and development of babies lasts 1-2 months. It is convenient to put babies in yogurt cups - they are easily perforated, during transplanting, it is easy to squeeze and remove a small outlet without damaging the roots.
In each pot with rooted cuttings, you need to place a tag on which to indicate the variety of violets and the date when it was set to root. The role of a room greenhouse can be successfully performed by a plastic cake box.
Do not forget that violets need to be supplemented if there is not enough natural light.
Problems of growing violets and care errors
- Brown spots on the leaves - the plant was watered with cold water, the water for irrigation should be warm.
- Leaves turn yellow - fertilizer overdose, too dry or too humid air, too much sun.
- Light yellow spots on the leaves - sunburn, shading is required from direct sunlight during the hottest hours. Remove damaged leaves.
- The leaves are lethargic, the middle of the outlet rots - rot of the root collar - occurs when the soil is waterlogged, while there may have been sharp fluctuations in temperature. The plant can only be destroyed.
- Gray bloom on leaves and flowers - gray rot or powdery mildew, which usually occurs when the conditions of detention are violated. Stop spraying, remove affected parts, treat with systemic fungicide.
- The leaves are pale green, the edges of the leaves are bent - the temperature is too low, it should not fall below 16 ° C, it is possible that a cold snap occurs at night, in this case, remove the flowers from the windowsill. Also, this can happen from over-watering.
- Violet does not bloom - with insufficient lighting, lack of nutrition in the soil, dry or cold air, frequent transplanting, untimely separation of daughter outlets, frequent rearrangement from place to place.
- Instead of a peduncle, daughter rosettes appear in the axils - too many of them are formed if the plant is planted in a pot that is too large for it. If they are not removed, then the mother plant does not bloom, or blooms, but sparsely, the leaves become smaller. This also happens when the plant is overfed, next time give fertilizer containing less nitrogen.
More about growing violets
The reasons for the death of Saintpaulia
Nematoda on Saintpaulia
Why does the center of the rosette at the violet die
What to do if a violet gets sick