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Mulberry family. This is one of the most common indoor plants.
In nature, ficuses are trees and semi-shrubs, grow in dense forests under rain, wind and sun, and are very hardy. But at home, ficuses are much more tender - they do not tolerate drafts, waterlogging of the soil and direct bright sun. Ficuses of variegated varieties are more photophilous, they need shading only in the hottest part of the day, from about 11 to 15 hours.
- Types of ficuses
- Ficus rubber
- Ficus Benjamin
- Ficus Ali (binnendika)
- Ficus lyre
- Ficus dwarf
In winter, ficuses tolerate room temperature well, but they need good lighting, so if the pots with plants do not fit on the windowsill and are rearranged into the room, you need to arrange lighting using fluorescent or LED lamps. And variegated forms, for example, Ficus Benjamin, can stand on the southern windowsill all winter. With a lack of lighting in winter, weak shoots are formed, internodes lengthen, there are few leaves, branches reach for the light and the crown looks one-sided.
Ficuses are propagated by cuttings. From a shoot, you can get as many cuttings as there are leaves on it. The propagation stalk should consist of one leaf with an intact eye and half of the lower internode without an eye. After cutting the cutting, it is immersed in warm water to stop the release of milky juice. For better rooting, a cut or split is made at the bottom of the cutting (for a cutting with hard wood, crosswise, for a cutting with soft wood, one incision). It is better to root the cuttings with soil heating and cover the cutting with a plastic bag.
Frequently asked questions about ficus
For all ficuses, such a soil mixture is best suited - 2 parts of leaf, 1 part of peat soil and 1 part of humus. Ficuses do not like when they are planted in dishes much larger than their root system, so they are transplanted when the roots are supposed to fill the entire pot or tub. At the same time, ficuses grow quite quickly, therefore, the soil during transplantation should be nutritious, in addition, fertilizing fertilizing is carried out in spring and summer (they respond well to feeding with organic fertilizers, rotted cow manure or Giant fertilizer is well suited for this). Ficuses can also be fed with such fertilizers as "Rainbow" and "Palma". Old specimens of large ficuses are transplanted very rarely - after 5-6 years. But every year you need to replace the top layer of the earth with a new one.You should also replace the top layer of the earth if a white crust appears on it - a salt deposit.
Types of ficuses
The first place of honor among the various types of ficus is occupied by Ficus rubbery or Ficus elastica. Also very popular are Ficus Benjamin, Ficus lyre, Ficus Bengal, Ficus dwarf, etc. The secret of such popularity is in the unpretentiousness of ficuses in general and the individual beauty of each species:
- ficus elastica - large monumental plant, very shade-tolerant;
- ficus benjamin in shape is a miniature tree, it is easy to form by pruning, splicing trunks, its branches bend easily and accept any forum;
- lyre ficus - a proud solitary plant with shiny leathery leaves;
- ficus Ali (binnendika) - in its appearance it resembles a willow tree, never grows and also branch well;
- dwarf ficus is an excellent ground cover or ampel plant.
Ficus rubbery Ficus elastica
It has several varieties that differ in the shape and color of the leaves. The varieties with yellow spots and stripes on the leaves are especially effective. Some varieties branch well, have a fairly compact shape, while others are reluctant to form lateral shoots and tend to grow upward.
At home, rubber ficus is undemanding to air humidity and tolerant of a lack of light. We advise you to pay special attention to the correct watering and care of the growing shoots, which can reach several meters and bend fancy. It is necessary to form the crown in a timely manner, tying up the stems or periodically trim them and root them.
Ficus rubber care
Ficus elastica is not demanding in maintenance, it is important to choose the right place, especially for large specimens - so that it is light and does not fry from batteries; do not over-water and periodically dust the leaves.
Preferably moderate, at least 18 ° C. They like to "keep their feet warm" - do not put the ficus pot on a cold windowsill, marble or tiled floor, etc. In a room with temperatures above moderate, the leaves begin to hang down.
All varieties of ficus elastica prefer a bright place, protected from direct sunlight at midday. Variegated forms need a lighter and warmer place than forms with dark leaves.
Ficus rubber-bearing watering loves moderate, does not tolerate waterlogging. Water at room temperature, better settled. Top dressing with fertilizers from March to August in two weeks.
Ficus benjamina Ficus benjamina
Small-leaved compact tree with a dense crown. Ficus Benjamin branches in old plants, 8-10 years old, droop, and give the tree a special appeal. At home, it grows up to 1.5-2 m in height.
Benjamin ficus care
Moderate, optimal in the range of 20-25 ° C, in winter, content is possible at lower temperatures around 16-18 ° C, with limited watering, the limit is 10 ° C with dry content.
Ficus benjamin loves light, especially variegated varieties, but protected from direct sunlight in the afternoon. In spring and summer, the east window is suitable, where the sun comes in the morning or evening. But in central Russia, for the period from September to January, a southern or southwestern window is ideal for him. With a lack of light in winter, ficus can fall leaf.
Ficus benjamin has moisture-retaining thickenings on the roots, therefore, it does not tolerate waterlogging, it must be well dried before the next watering. If the roots of the ficus dries for a very long time after watering, decay may begin: the plant simultaneously throws off a large number of leaves, some lose their color, turn yellow, others fly around still green.
Ficus Ali (binnendika) Ficus binnendijkii 'Alii'
Ali is the most popular variety of Ficus binnendijkii, also known as willow ficus. The leaves of this ficus really resemble willow in shape, but this is a popular name, not a botanical one.
With good care, ficus Ali at home reaches 1.5 m in height and about 70-80 cm in diameter. You should not put this ficus on the floor: firstly, it is dark, the lower part of the trunk will begin to bare, and secondly, it is always colder on the floor, the soil in the pot dries longer and the roots can rot if watered too abundantly.
Ficus Ali care
Moderate, optimal in the range of 20-25 ° C, in winter, content is possible at lower temperatures of about 16-18 ° C, with limited watering, limit 13 ° C with dry content. With sudden changes in temperature, it can shed leaves.
Bright diffused light, light partial shade. With an acute lack of light, the shoots stretch out, the leaves thin out. Direct sunlight can cause burns in hot midday. Ficus Ali with green leaves is more shade-tolerant than many other types of ficus. But variegated varieties like 'Amstel Gold' need more intense light, with some sunlight in the morning or evening.
In summer, ficus is watered moderately, the topsoil should dry well to a depth of about 1/2 the height of the pot. In winter, with a decrease in light and temperature, watering is limited, allowing the land to dry out almost completely.
Ficus lyre Ficus lirata
Ficus lyre Ficus lirata - is distinguished by its large leaves, similar in shape to an inverted violin. Its leaves reach a length of 50-60 cm. Likes loneliness, you should not put it close to other plants.
This ficus is not often found in flower shops, but it is wonderful - leathery leaves, directed upwards, have an interesting shape. The ficus itself grows slowly, with good care it does not bare from below. A real decoration for a spacious office or hall. Ficus lyre-shaped at home branch poorly, often grows in one trunk, at the age of 4-5 years it can give side shoots.
Ficus lyre care
In summer, it is an ordinary room, does not like extreme heat, in winter it is optimal 18-20 ° C, the limit is 12 ° C. Doesn't like soil cooling after watering!
Bright place, protected from direct sunlight in spring and summer from 11 am to 4 pm.
Moderate, the soil should have time to dry before the next watering. Water at room temperature, well settled. Top dressing with fertilizers from April to August in two weeks.
Dwarf ficus Ficus pumila
Fast-growing, small-leaved ficus, completely unlike all other types of ficus. You can grow it as an ampelous plant, you can tie it to a support so that it stretches up.
The main care of the ficus consists in tying the support, timely transplanting and watering, fertilizing with fertilizers. Ficus responds well to hot showers as a prophylaxis against ticks.
Ficus pumila care
Moderate, optimal in the range of 20-25 ° C, in winter, content is possible at lower temperatures of about 12-14 ° C, with limited watering, limit 8 ° C with dry content. Although under natural conditions, the tiny ficus can withstand lower temperatures and even small frosts, when growing at home, you should not risk it - protect the plants from drafts.
Ficus pumila grows well in bright, diffused light with some sunlight. The east and west windows are suitable, shading is required only at noon hours. It grows well under artificial lighting. Variegated ficus is more light-requiring. If the ficus lacks light, it can grow new shoots without leaves.
Quite abundant in summer, this is a rare ficus that does not tolerate complete dryness of the earth, it should always be slightly damp, but from above it should have time to dry out by about a quarter of the height of the pot before the next watering. In winter, ficus is watered less often, with drying the earth half the height of the pot.