Gloxinia Care: Watering, Planting, Feeding, Propagation Of Gloxinia By Seeds

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Gloxinia Care: Watering, Planting, Feeding, Propagation Of Gloxinia By Seeds
Gloxinia Care: Watering, Planting, Feeding, Propagation Of Gloxinia By Seeds
Video: Gloxinia Care: Watering, Planting, Feeding, Propagation Of Gloxinia By Seeds
Video: How to Plant, Grow & Care for GLOXINIA - Indoor or Outdoor [Start to Finish] 2023, February
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Content

  • Place for gloxinia
  • Soil for gloxinia
  • Planting a tuber
  • Growing temperature
  • Air humidity
  • Watering gloxinia
  • Top dressing with fertilizers
  • Bloxinia bloom
  • Rest period in gloxinia
  • Reproduction of gloxinia
  • Growing problems
  • Gloxinia disease
  • Gloxinia pests

From a botanical point of view, Gloxinia Sinningia, the taxonomy of the Gesneriaceae has changed, but among flower growers, their favorite flowers are still called gloski, glosechki and gloxinia. Therefore, in order not to create confusion, we will retain the outdated name, but remember that her name is Sinningia the beautiful - a popular houseplant, unpretentious, abundantly blooming.

Place for gloxinia

Gloxinia is photophilous, but it is better not to put it in direct sun, especially in the flowering phase, the flowers wither quickly, and the duration of flowering is greatly reduced.

In the spring, when the sun is not yet too hot, it will feel good on the southern window, but with the onset of June-July (depending on the climatic zone), the plant will need to be rearranged to the eastern or even western windows, or shaded from direct sunlight.

I do this: as long as the gloxinia grows and lays buds, it is in the brightest place, and when the first flowers bloom, I remove it to a less illuminated and cooler place.

Gloxinia is a plant of long daylight hours, for normal growth and development it needs 12-14 hours of illumination of at least 5000LK. With insufficient lighting, especially during the period of the beginning of growth, the plants stretch out strongly, which further negatively affects the number of buds laid. They will be few, or may not be at all. After the root of the tuber and the appearance of leaves, the lighting should be as bright as possible, then the stem of the plant will be shorter, there are many buds and gloxinia will delight you with abundant flowering. The intensity of the color of future colors also depends on the illumination; in bright light, the colors have a rich color, and in low light, the color is noticeably paler.

Gloxinia
Gloxinia

Gloxinia line 'Brocade'

Gloxinia
Gloxinia

Gloxinia line 'Brocade'

Gloxinia
Gloxinia

Gloxinia line 'Brocade'

Soil for gloxinia

You can use a mixture of leaf, peat soil and sand (1: 1: 0.5), but the composition may be different, the main condition is that the soil is loose and breathable. The acidity is pH 5.5 - 6.5, on more acidic soils, gloxinia grows poorly and for this reason, clean, unoxidized peat is not suitable for it.

Before planting a plant, I highly recommend disinfecting the soil. Now I use the drug Maxim (1 ampoule for 2 liters of water).

For growing gloxinias, wide and shallow dishes are more suitable. For young tubers, pots with a diameter of 7-10 cm are suitable, and for larger and adults 11-15 cm. Pots can be either plastic or clay.

Planting a tuber

In February - March, less often in January (it all depends on the storage temperature), the tuber begins to germinate. If it was stored in a pot with old soil, you need to get it out, clean it from the remnants of last year's roots and earth. Disinfect in a pink solution of potassium permanganate (30 min) or in any fungicide solution. For faster root formation, the tuber is soaked in a solution of heteroauxin for 18-24 hours, (making sure that the solution does not fall into the groove of the tuber), but this is not necessary. The tuber is planted in the ground with a depression upward and sprinkled with soil no more than 1 cm. There must be drainage at the bottom of the pot (polystyrene, expanded clay, crushed stone, etc.). The higher the pot, the more drainage (up to 1/3).

During the period of tuber germination, the largest losses are always and they are associated with waterlogging of the soil, as a result of which the tuber rots. Since the development of roots is preceded by the formation of the aboveground part, watering should be very gentle along the edge of the pot or in a pan and only until the soil is slightly moistened. To avoid unwanted losses, I do this:

I plant the tuber in moist soil level with it, put the pot in a bag and put it in a bright place, without direct sunlight (22-25 degrees). I air it once a day for 10-15 minutes. After the appearance of the first pair of leaves, I open the top of the package and accustom the young plant to indoor conditions for 3-4 days, then I remove the package completely. As the stem grows, I add soil and close the tuber by 1-2 cm. While the plant is in the bag, there is no need to water it, the soil remains evenly moist and loose, the air humidity and heat remain high, the roots grow faster and there are almost no losses.

Growing temperature

At the stage of tuber germination after a dormant period, it is necessary to maintain a temperature of about +25 degrees. After rooting and with the beginning of the growth of the vegetative mass, the temperature is reduced to +22 degrees during the day and +18 at night. Lowering the temperature is necessary so that in conditions of insufficient illumination (in February-March there is not enough light), the plants do not grow too violently and do not stretch out. The temperature may not be lowered, but in this case the plants need to be illuminated.

During the growing season, the temperature should not drop below 18 degrees Celsius. Lower temperatures (from +15 - +20) slow down the growth and development of the plant. The optimum temperature for the growth and development of gloxinia ranges from +22 to +26 degrees.

During the active growing season, a short-term increase in temperature up to +28 degrees is allowed, but at higher temperatures, few buds are formed. If elevated temperatures persist for a long time, then gloxinia begins a period of stagnation, i.e. growth and development stop, and blossoming flowers last no more than 3 days.

Thus, we can conclude that high temperatures for gloxinia are even more destructive than excess illumination.

Gloxinia
Gloxinia

Gloxinia line 'Avanti'

Gloxinia
Gloxinia

Gloxinia line 'Avanti'

Gloxinia
Gloxinia

Gloxinia line 'Avanti'

Air humidity

The air humidity should be in the range of 70-80%, but gloxinia feels good even at a lower humidity of 50%, however, even lower humidity is undesirable, the plant does not develop well, growth slows down and leaves deform. The edges of the leaf blade are bent downward.

To increase the humidity of the air, you can place the plant on pallets with wet expanded clay, moss, water, but you cannot spray gloxinia itself because brown, dry spots are formed. However, far from light and draft, gloxinia tolerates water procedures very well. At night, you can bring it into the bathroom, spray it or wash it with warm water and leave it there with the doors closed and the lights off until the water on the leaves is completely dry.

Watering gloxinia

For irrigation, you need to use soft water (thawed, rain, filtered or partially boiled), chlorinated tap water must first be defended for at least a day.

It is better to water from a pallet or carefully along the edge of the pot, not allowing water to get on the leaves and in the center of the tuber (where the sprouts come from) because in most cases, not from the roots, but from above, from the point of growth, rotting of the tuber begins. Watering for irrigation should be warm, however, if gloxinia is at a temperature of +18 degrees, then this does not mean at all that you need to water it with water at a temperature of +25 degrees, nothing good will come of it. The water should be 2-3 degrees above the ambient air temperature. After 20-30 minutes after watering, drain the remaining water from the pan.

Between watering, you need to dry a clod of earth.

Reduce the frequency of watering in rainy, cloudy and cold weather.

At this time, the soil does not dry out for a long time, and the roots can rot from excess moisture.

Top dressing with fertilizers

After planting the tuber, the first 1.5 - 2 months do not need to be fed gloxinia.

Fertilizers are applied one hour after the main watering, along the edges of the pot, making sure that the solution does not fall on the leaves and at the growth point. It is advisable to do this in cloudy weather or in the evening, so that after feeding the plant is not in the sun.

Top dressing with full mineral fertilizer, alternating with organic fertilizers every two weeks, but the first top dressing should be mineral.

gloxinia
gloxinia

Lack of iron on gloxinia (photo by Tydeus)

You can feed it once every 10 days, but then make the concentration of the solution weaker.

Before the appearance of buds, organic matter alternates with nitrogen: (potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate)

With the appearance of buds, organic matter alternates with phosphorus: superphosphate, phosphoric acid potassium), if this is not done, dormant vegetative buds will awaken, which will lead to a suspension of the normal development of the plant.

  • Nitrogen fertilizers cause enhanced vegetative growth, with an excess of them, flower buds are almost not formed. Excess nitrogen can also cause root rot. For this reason, nitrogen fertilization is given only at the beginning of growth.
  • Phosphate fertilizers - enhance flowering, but theirs. excess causes premature aging of leaves and leads to plant chlorosis.
  • Potash fertilizers - improve flowering. Excess leads to the formation of shortened peduncles, yellowing of the lower leaves, deterioration of the color of flowers.
  • Trace elements - affect the size of flowers, their color and the number of buds.

Organic fertilizers for tuber flowers

Bird droppings

Dung is a very potent fertilizer and its concentration must be strictly observed when using it. Pour 1 tablespoon of droppings with 2 liters of water, cover and place in a warm and dark place. In the next 3-4 days, stir with a stick until fermentation begins (bubbles appear on the surface). After the completion of the fermentation process (about a week), the bubbles disappear, solid particles settle to the bottom of the jar, the solution brightens. It is now ready for use.

250 ml of the concentrated solution is poured into 1 liter of water and mixed well; this solution is watered with the plants after preliminary moistening. (one hour after the main watering).

You can just buy a ready-made organic fertilizer.

Mineral dressing for tuberous flowers

for 10 liters of water take:

  • 10 g simple superphosphate
  • 10 g potassium chloride
  • 4 g ammonium nitrate
  • 5 g magnesium sulfate
  • 0.1 g ferric chloride
  • 0.07 g boric acid
  • 0.004 g of copper sulfate
  • 0.05 g of manganese sulfate
  • 0.008 g of zinc sulfate.

If it is not possible or too lazy to look for everything separately, then just buy a phosphorus-potassium mineral fertilizer and trace elements.

I use Uniflor - flower, Uniflor-bud or Malyshok (dry, granulated for pepper and tomato), as phosphorus-potassium, Uniflor - growth, Uniflor - green leaf, as nitrogen and Uniflor-micro, as trace elements.

After flowering, feed 2 times with potassium-phosphorus fertilizers with an interval of 14 days. This will help the tuber regain strength and survive the rest period well.

Gloxinia
Gloxinia

Gloxinia F1

Gloxinia
Gloxinia

hybrids

Gloxinia hybrids F1
Gloxinia hybrids F1

Gloxinia F1 hybrids Gloxinia F1 hybrids

Bloxinia bloom

In a properly grown plant, after the third or fourth pair of leaves, buds are laid. Their number depends primarily on the mass of the tuber and growing conditions (light, temperature, humidity).

Gloxinia can bloom again (for example, Avanti and Brocade hybrids) if the first bloom was early. In this case, the aboveground part (stem and leaves) is cut off, leaving a shoot about 2 cm high. Soon, lateral shoots of the second generation (second growth) develop in gloxinia on which buds are laid, the plants bloom, but not as abundantly as during the primary flowering. Flowers are smaller.

Repeated flowering is not typical for all species and varieties of gloxinia, for example, lateral shoots of the summer generation of the Kaiser Friedrich variety develop slowly, by the end of summer they have time to overgrow with leaves, but do not pass into the budding and flowering phase.

Rest period in gloxinia

In autumn (September - October), when it will be seen that the soil does not dry out for a long time after watering, watering is reduced, and after the leaves begin to turn yellow or dry out, they stop watering altogether. After the aerial part of the plant completely dies off, the tuber goes into a dormant state, which lasts 3-4 months, depending on the storage temperature.

Tubers are stored in several ways:

  1. The pot with the tuber is placed in a cool place with a temperature of +10 to +15 degrees. During the winter, the soil is slightly moistened several times so that the tubers do not dry out and do not shrink too much, especially if the tubers are small, they are stored worse because they dry out quickly. If the storage temperature is higher, then moisten it more often.
  2. After 2 weeks after the aboveground mass has completely died out, the tubers are dug up, cleaned of root residues and placed in wet sand and stored in a cool place. This method is convenient because at any time you can easily get the tubers out of the sand and inspect their condition.

I store it like this: I dig up the tubers, put them in wet sawdust or sand and store them on the bottom or middle shelf of the refrigerator door. Once a month I take out and inspect the tubers, if the sawdust dries up, I slightly moisten them and put the tubers there again.

According to literature data, as well as on the basis of data from Internet resources, storage temperatures below +8 degrees are fatal for gloxinia. In my many years of experience, I cannot agree with this, in the refrigerator it is only +5, but I have not had any losses. The main condition is not to overmoisten the substrate in which the tubers are stored, it should only be slightly damp, and the sand may even be dry.

Reproduction of gloxinia

Gloxinia are easily propagated by seeds, leaf and stem cuttings, part of the leaf blade, peduncle and tuber division.

Seed propagation is predominantly for the species gloxinia; you can get many young plants at once and it is not desirable for varietal and hybrid ones; splitting of traits can occur at the genetic level, which manifests itself in the external appearance of the plant. There is no guarantee that you will receive a plant with the original, parental characteristics.

Sowing Gloxinia Seeds

Sowing is carried out at the end of January - February (with obligatory supplementary lighting with fluorescent lamps) or in March.

Seeds germinate in the light, they are sown superficially on a moist substrate (the composition is the same as for planting tubers), lightly pressed against it and covered with glass or film. The seed plate is placed in a bright place. At a temperature of 24-26 degrees, germination begins 12-14 days from the moment of sowing, at lower temperatures it takes up to one month or even longer. Crop care is reduced to maintaining temperature and humidity, preventing the soil from drying out. If it becomes necessary to moisten the soil, then this should be done from the pallet. It is not necessary to water the top because the seeds are small and can be easily washed off with water.

About a month after the appearance of the cotyledons, you can make the first pick, especially if the crops are thickened. They dive according to the 2 * 2 cm scheme into light soil. A month later, after the appearance of the first pair of true leaves, young plants dive a second time or immediately plant them in separate pots with a diameter of 6 cm (cactus). The temperature is maintained at least +20 degrees. Gloxinia tolerates picking well, and after it begins to grow intensively.

I do this: if the seeds are granular, I spread them at a distance of 4 * 4 cm from each other in order to do without picking in the cotyledon phase in the future. I put a bowl with crops in a transparent cake box, and there they are until 1-2 pairs of real leaves appear. After that I put them in separate pots and put them in this mini-greenhouse again for 2 weeks for rooting and survival. In the future, I accustom them to the open air of the room and, if necessary, transfer them into larger pots. My seedlings bloom 4-5 months after germination.

Gloxinia grown from seed may not have a dormant period in the first year and will vegetate (continue to grow) throughout the winter.

How to get Gloxinia seeds

On the second day of flowering, after blooming, take a soft brush and transfer the pollen to the stigma of the pistil. Repeat this procedure the next day to ensure pollination. If pollination has occurred, then the perianth falls off after a few days, the ovary begins to grow, and with it the receptacle noticeably thickens. The former flower, but now an unripe fruit of a dark green color, does not dry out for a long time. Seed ripening lasts 1.5 - 2 months and it is uneven, that is, seeds ripen in a capsule at different times. After the fruit (box) opens, bring a piece of paper and, tapping on the peduncle, shake out the seeds. After a couple of days, repeat the collection of seeds. The seeds are very small, dusty. Germination remains for 2-3 years. Germination is good.

Normally, a plant should have no more than 3 boxes of seeds. If the plant is young or the tuber is insufficient in weight and size, limit yourself to one fruit, remove the excess.

Vegetative reproduction of gloxinia

Vegetative propagation is the most common method, it is the simplest and most affordable. If rooting occurs in spring or in the first half of summer, then from the formed young plants you can see flowering in the same season.

Reproduction of gloxinia leaf cuttings

In the budding phase or during flowering, the leaf of the lower tier of the rosette is cut off (young, the upper leaves should not be taken). It is desirable that the petiole be short and thick; the size of the resulting tuber will depend on the diameter of the petiole. Then you can proceed in a convenient way for you:

  1. Submerge the cutting in water by 1 - 1.5 cm and keep it until roots are formed (you do not need to change the water, just top up if necessary), then plant it in the ground to a depth of 2-2.5 cm.For better survival of the cutting in the ground, you can cover with a jar or bag.
  2. The stalk is dipped in charcoal powder and planted in moist soil. Cover with a glass jar on top. At a temperature not lower than +22 degrees, rooting occurs within 2-3 weeks, then the jar can be removed. A little trick: if you have only one leaf, and you need to get two tubers, split the base of the petiole lengthwise by 1 - 1.5 cm, after rooting, 2 smaller nodules will form.

Reproduction of gloxinia stem cuttings

Gloxinia
Gloxinia

If a lot of lateral shoots have woken up in the gloxinia tuber, 1-2 are left, and the rest are broken out. Stem cuttings are, in fact, finished plants, but without roots. They are rooted in the same way as leafy ones and they bloom in the same season.

Reproduction of gloxinia leaf plate

  1. Cut off a large sheet at the base of the rosette. On the back of the leaf blade, cut across the veins at the thickest points. Lay the sheet on a damp ground, press it against the soil at the cuts and cover with a bag or place in a greenhouse. Roots will soon appear at the incisions, and then nodules form. It is important to maintain high humidity.
  2. The sheet plate is cut across into 2-3 parts, depending on the size of the sheet, and each part is planted in soil or sand, covered with a jar or bag to maintain moisture. Rooted at a temperature not lower than +22 degrees. Optimal about +25.

Reproduction of gloxinia peduncle

It should be mentioned that not all gloxinia varieties can be propagated in this way. Some varieties take root well with peduncles, while others do not take root at all.

After the corolla wilts, the peduncle is broken out and placed in water 1 - 1.5 cm and make sure that it does not touch the walls of the vessel. Do not change the water, add as it evaporates. After about a month, roots and nodules are formed on it. After that, the peduncle is planted in moist soil to a depth of 1.5 - 2 cm. Care like a leaf cuttings.

Reproduction of gloxinia by dividing the tuber

Large tubers that have more than two sprouts can be divided. The tuber is cut into pieces so that each of them has at least one sprout. Sections of tuber parts are sprinkled with crushed charcoal, dried for 3-4 days in a dark place at room temperature and then planted in moist soil.

Further care is similar to caring for a whole tuber after planting.

Possible failures when growing Gloxinia

Tuber has not formed - this can happen when planting a very long stem cutting or if the cutting was very deeply planted and watered abundantly.

The buds turn black and die off - the reason is the lack of micronutrients and the shortened daylight hours.

Reddening of the leaves is a lack of phosphorus.

Yellowing of leaves - lack of nitrogen or excessive watering.

Leaf discoloration - lack of magnesium.

Leaf curl - insufficient air humidity.

Spotting (non-infectious). On the leaves, yellow or brown spots of an indefinite shape - too bright lighting, drafts or watering with cold water.

Twisting of flowers, slowing down of plant growth - the temperature is below +15 degrees.

The curling of the edges of the leaves and their bending, the formation of deformed flowers and shortened pedicels - excess moisture in the soil.

Decay of petioles and buds - excess soil acidity, excess nitrogen fertilizers, waterlogging of the soil.

The plant does not bloom - insufficient lighting, lack of nutrition, dry or cold air, improper maintenance during the dormant period, excess nitrogen fertilizers.

Gloxinia disease

  • Rotting tuber. Occurs with excessive watering. At the initial stage, the disease is manifested by a decrease in leaf turgor, after watering the turgor is not restored. With a strong defeat of the tuber, the gloxinia droops completely. It is necessary to cut and re-root the leafy cuttings. If the tuber has rotted not from the point of growth, then the decayed parts are cut to healthy tissue, disinfected in a strong solution of potassium permanganate or other fungicide, powdered with crushed coal and dried for 2-3 days, after which they are planted again in moist soil.
  • Late blight. It is the most common disease of the Gesneriaceae family. It develops rapidly and leads to the sudden death of gloxinia. It begins with a slight wilting, then the growth of the stem stops and its color changes. After watering, the leaves wither even more, the base of the stem begins to rot, passing to the petioles and leaves. An attempt to preserve the plant is unsuccessful, cut leaf cuttings do not take root, quickly turn black and rot. The plant must be destroyed along with the earth.
  • Fusarium. The plant becomes infected through the soil. The leaves turn brown, curl and wither. Dark streaks and cracks form on the stem. The defeat of the plant by fusarium is facilitated by excessive watering and constant soil moisture.

More fusarium

Gloxinia pests

Most often, gloxinia are affected by thrips and red spider mites.

Treat with systemic insecticides in a place protected from light and drafts (spray the plant itself, spill the soil). After the moisture from the leaves of gloxinia has dried completely, you can put it back. The procedure is well tolerated.

Author of the article and photo of Severin

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