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Plants are native to tropical regions of America. There are over 2000 species in nature. Most of the representatives of this family are plants with a short stem and long, xiphoid leathery leaves, clasping each other and forming a funnel-shaped rosette. It is from the center of the outlet that peduncles appear. Flowers are collected in a simple or complex spike-shaped, paniculate, capitate or racemose inflorescence, depending on the species. In many bromeliads, during flowering, the upper leaves of the rosette change color to a brighter color - red, yellow, blue, etc. After flowering, the mother rosette dies off, but by this time the plant has formed many lateral daughter shoots.
Most bromeliads are epiphytic plants that grow on tree trunks. Some bromeliad leaf rosettes are dense and wide, designed to collect moisture. In other rosettes, loose and thin leaves trap moisture with their thin scales or hairs.
All bromeliads can be classified into one of the following two groups
|Bromeliads, originating from places with a humid climate and more or less uniform rainfall throughout the year||Bromeliads originating from places with a pronounced dry period of dormancy|
|- do not have a pronounced dormancy period, therefore, they are kept in approximately the same conditions throughout the year.||- have a pronounced rest period.|
|- throughout the year warm conditions - within 18 - 24 ° С, not lower than 15 ° С.||- usual temperature in summer and cooler conditions in winter - within 16-18 ° С, but not lower than 12 ° С.|
|- high humidity - regular spraying, about once a day and twice in summer in hot weather.||- high air humidity in spring and summer, in winter only periodic spraying - once a week.|
|- watering is abundant, preferably with warm water, somewhat more moderate in winter.||- abundant watering in spring and summer, sparse watering in winter, about once a week.|
|This group includes: pineapple, gusmania, vriezia, cryptantus, some types of nidularia, etc.||This group includes: ehmeya, bilbergia, neoregelia, etc.|
- A location with very good lighting, but shaded from direct sunlight in summer, although some bromeliads like pineapple or cryptanthus like direct sunlight.
- Plants with a dense rosette of leaves are watered by pouring water directly into the outlet. However, in winter, if the plants are kept in cool conditions, watering is preferable in the soil to avoid leaf rot. Water for irrigation is preferable soft, lime-free.
- All bromeliads love clean fresh air, so you need to regularly ventilate the room to protect the plants from drafts.
- Fertilizers are applied in the form of foliar top dressing with a complex mineral fertilizer (especially for bromeliads according to the instructions or for ordinary indoor plants, but taken in a half or even less dose). Top dressing begins in May and is carried out once a month until August. The diluted fertilizer is either poured into the leaf outlet during watering, or the plant is sprayed with it.
- Transplant as needed in early spring. The root system of most bromeliads is poorly developed, even despite the impressive size of the aerial part of the plant, so the transplant capacity should not be very large.
- The physical properties of the soil play an important role - it must be very loose, it must be good for moisture and air. The acidity of the soil for bromeliads should be moderate, i.e. pH 5. Good drainage for bromeliads is 1/3 to 1/2 the height of the pot. To give the soil looseness, finely chopped bark of coniferous trees (for example, spruce or pine, can be together with needles), as well as pieces of birch coal, are added to it. The approximate composition of the soil mixture is 2 parts of leaf humus, 1 part of humus soil, 1 part of high-moor peat and 1 part of sand. The composition of the soil depends on the type of bromeliads - some of them must be added sod land, others chopped sphagnum moss, chopped rhizome of ferns.
Reproduction of bromeliads
Bromeliads propagate by seeds and offspring that have roots. It should be noted that overgrown plants with undivided babies bloom much more readily. Successful propagation of bromeliads from seed increases soil sterility and seed dressing. Seeds are sown in bowls in a mixture of leafy earth and sand or a mixture of chopped sphagnum moss and chopped fern roots. The seedlings are kept under soil heating with a temperature of about 30 ° C, in humid conditions and in light partial shade.