Propagation By Cuttings

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Propagation By Cuttings
Propagation By Cuttings
Video: Propagation By Cuttings
Video: Propagating From Cuttings 101 2023, February
Anonim
ficus cuttings
ficus cuttings

Many indoor plants can be grown from stem cuttings, which is why this method of propagation is the most common. Some plants take root just in the water, others are more demanding and require hormone treatment and greenhouse conditions.

Most plants are propagated by cuttings taken from the upper parts of the shoots, mainly in the spring and summer, some plants are easily cut at any time of the year. You can put the shoots on rooting in plain water (preferably boiled), while it is better to use dark glass dishes, for example, a beer bottle, if the stalk passes freely into the neck. Or a glass jar wrapped in paper, so the water in the container will not bloom. If the walls of the vessel are covered with blue-green algae, the stem of the cutting is also often silted up and does not give roots.

You can also root cuttings in the ground, with some plants (gardenia) rooting only in the ground. The soil mixture for rooting cuttings of many unpretentious indoor plants can be taken universal (for example, the universal soil "Terravita") or composed of equal parts of sand, peat and leaf humus. But for some "difficult" plants, the same gardenia, a special soil mixture is selected for rooting, the same as for adult gardenias, only lighter. So, large bush gardenias are planted in a mixture of 1 part turf, 1 part coniferous, 1 part leaf, 1 part peat land and 1 part sand. For rooting cuttings, they take everything the same, in the same proportions, except for sod land.

Alternatively, you can root the cuttings in pure vermiculite or pure river sand. Different indoor flowers grow roots in vermiculite or perlite at different rates. For example, citrus fruits form roots much faster when rooting in peat.

If you pick up a transparent pot for a rooted cutting, you can see the emerging roots through the walls. If there is no such pot, but you want transparency, you can use a cut-off bottom from a plastic bottle or disposable plastic picnic cups. By the way, the volume of the rooting pot should be small. And the pot must be stable. If you cut a stalk from a large plant, or a branch is large, then it also needs a small pot. But it must be fixed (literally tied to a shelf) or weighted down by placing a stone on the bottom.

Preparing cuttings

propagation by cuttings
propagation by cuttings

Cuttings are cut with a sharp, clean knife with an oblique cut, directly under the eye, without damaging the branches. Cuttings of plants containing a lot of water in the leaves (succulents) are dried before planting. In shrubs with bark (oleander, ficus), woody shoots are usually cut off.

Herbaceous cuttings are either planted in the ground to a depth of 1-2 cm, woody cuttings - a little deeper, or set to root in water. For better rooting, cuttings need moist air, so the dishes with cuttings are covered with a glass jar or plastic bag, but a gap is left. Cuttings of succulent, fleshy plants, as well as fuchsia and geranium, do not require shelter.

Cuttings of ficuses, araucaria, euphorbia and other plants that emit milky juice are dipped in warm water until the release of juice stops, then the cut is sprinkled with crushed charcoal.

citrus cuttings
citrus cuttings

If a cut cut has many leaves, the cut may die. The fact is that the leaves evaporate water and waste nutrients, and cuttings without roots can only partially replenish the loss of moisture. Some plants require a lot of energy to root, and the extra leaf surface only slows down the process. Then the leaves are partially or almost completely cut off. For citrus cuttings, for example, a couple of leaves are left, and each is cut by half or two-thirds, see Rooting citrus cuttings.

Cuttings of plants that are difficult to root, or cut at unfavorable times of the year, for example, late autumn, are best rooted using special preparations - growth stimulants (heteroauxin, see drugs and see phytohormones). The cut cutting is "dipped" into powder, then a groove is made in the prepared pot with a stick. The stalk is lowered into the soil, lightly pressed and covered with a glass jar or bag. The photo shows the process of rooting a zamiokulkas cuttings. Do not expect a quick result - some plants take more than one month to root.

Care of cuttings

hibiscus cuttings
hibiscus cuttings

Caring for cuttings consists in spraying with warm water, if they are not covered with a bag or jar, wiping sweaty glasses or a bag, shading from the sun. In this case, airing is carried out at least twice a day - in the morning and in the evening. Airing can be dispensed with if the bag is not tied, but under the edge of the can, for example, put half a wine bottle cork so that a gap is formed.

If rotten cuttings are found, then they should be immediately removed from the common vessel with cuttings. If the heel of the cutting has rotted just a little, you can save the cutting. To do this, it is cut to a healthy tissue and again placed in clean water with the addition of activated carbon.

Rooted cuttings can be planted directly in pots, but avoid direct sun for 1-2 days after transplanting. Also, cuttings can be sprayed with growth stimulants, but without fanaticism and exaggeration of dosages (preparations of epin, zircon, amulet).

Sometimes cuttings, even of unpretentious and light plants, do not want to take root and stubbornly rot. In this case, as mentioned above, you need to shade the jar of water, add activated carbon to the water itself, and change the water periodically.

The question often arises: when to plant a rooted cutting in the ground. Then, when several strong roots are formed, the length depends on the size of the cutting. But some plants, for example, hibiscus, are planted in the ground without waiting for the roots, and when a callus forms on the stem, white nodules in places where future roots are formed.

Sometimes it happens that the stalk takes root easily in water, forms several roots, but when transplanted into the ground, it fades and does not take root. This may be for several reasons, but the main one is that the roots of cuttings obtained in water differ from the roots of plants grown in the ground, they are completely covered with large root hairs, fluffy, when viewed without magnification. And when planting in a drier environment (ground), partially or massively, the root hairs die off - they dry out. Those parts of the root where root hairs die lose their ability to absorb water and nutrients, and the cutting dies. If the root hairs die off partially, then the cutting spends all its energy on building up the root mass, and grows very slowly.

In such cases, transplantation with an intermediate substrate option helps. More precisely, like this: soil is poured into a pot prepared for planting a cutting, moistened, compacted. Then a deep hole is made in the middle (you can take a bottle from under the medicine and press it into the ground - you get a clear depression). A cutting is lowered into it, and its roots are covered not with earth, but with vermiculite. Vermiculite is very loose and breathes easily, and in addition, it is able to accumulate a large amount of moisture to support the root hairs of the "water" roots. Gradually, the roots will grow, penetrate into the ground, and the cutting takes root easier. In addition, you can try using a drug such as "Ukorenit" - see phytohormones.

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