Table of contents:
- Plant propagation by root suckers
- Reproduction of plants by children
- Plant propagation by tubers and pieces of rhizomes
The method of reproduction of plants by division is to divide the bush. This method is typical for plants that grow well in width (aspidistra, clivia, calla, cyperus, arrowroot, agapanthus, asparagus, ferns, passionflower, pineapple, etc.). When transplanting in spring, these plants, taken out of the pot, are divided in half or into more parts. To do this, use a well-sharpened knife. Each of the parts should have a small number of roots and growth buds. Plants that reproduce mainly by dividing the bush, as a rule, have one feature - they like cramped dishes. So, if an aglaonema or sansevieria is planted in a pot that is too large, the above-ground part of the plant will not grow for a long time. In this inhibited state, the flower can survive for about a year.
Plant propagation by root suckers
Theoretically, division by suckers can be attributed to division reproduction, i.e. as usual, root suckers have an independent root system. If you do not separate them, the bush grows and then you have to divide it into large parts. In many plants, especially flowering ones, the offspring greatly weaken the plant and they must be removed, for example, Calla Ethiopian. By the way, sometimes the presence of root suckers plays an important role in the species identification of plants of one family. So, some types of cordilins are very similar to dracaena, they can be distinguished by some signs, one of which is the ability to form root suckers with cordilins, while dracaena never have them.
The process of dividing by root offspring itself is not difficult. First, the plants that form the offspring are usually okay to transplant. Secondly, the offspring is already a small plant on independent roots, adapted in the ground, and not in water, as in cuttings. When transplanting a mother plant, the offspring are separated with a sharp knife and immediately planted, but only in small pots. Too large a container, it can contribute to acidification of the earth during watering, and inhibition of the growth of a young plant. After transplanting, sun-loving plants shade for the first two days.
Reproduction of plants by children
A baby is a young plant that grows on a mother bush, unlike a root offspring, babies can grow on other parts of the plant - leaves, stems, even peduncles. The embryonic buds from which babies grow are usually located on any part of the plant, except for the roots. In cacti, babies emerge from the areoles (a modified lateral bud or the tip of an underdeveloped shoot), but sometimes when the top of a cactus is cut, babies can appear from its central cylinder. In bromeliads, babies emerge from the kidneys of the hypocotyl.
Reproduction by children in some plants is not difficult, and sometimes you have to tinker. Cacti easily reproduce by children. It is enough to remove the baby from the mother plant and put it on the surface of the potted substrate, then do not water until the roots appear. Also, Kalanchoe babies easily reproduce, the species Bryophyllum daigremontianum, which forms babies along the edge of the leaf, is called viviparous, because it forms already full-fledged tiny Kalanchoe with leaves and roots.
But the reproduction of bromeliads is more difficult, the baby must be separated from the mother plant when it reaches half of the "mother's" height, by this time, the baby develops its own roots or their rudiments. The separated baby is immediately planted in the ground, if you cut off a small baby without roots, you can try to root it in water, but the roots appear rather reluctantly, often the children rot and die.
In bulbous plants, the formation of children allows you to preserve all varietal characteristics, which does not guarantee seed reproduction, but the multiplication factor is different for different plants. For example, in hippeastrum it is quite low. Babies are formed irregularly and in some varieties very reluctantly (terry varieties). The babies are separated from the mother's bulb during transplantation. When separating, the baby should be at least 2 cm, with good roots.
There are special techniques for obtaining babies from some bulbous, for example, from hyacinths. A deep cruciform incision is made at the bottom of the bulb removed from the ground, or the bottom is cut out so as to expose the lower parts of the scales. The bulb is dried for 2-3 days, and then removed to a shaded dry place, for example, on a rack. From the buds of renewal, laid between the scales of the bulb, daughter bulbs begin to develop.
Plant propagation by tubers and pieces of rhizomes
Propagation by tubers and pieces of rhizomes is used for propagation of gloxinia, caladiums, tuberous begonias, etc. The division of tubers is carried out after they have sprouted in warm and humid conditions. With a sharp knife, the tuber is cut into several parts. It is important that during division each part of the tuber has at least one bud (eye). Cuts on the tubers are sprinkled with crushed charcoal to avoid rotting and planted in fresh soil. A very interesting experiment can be carried out with the cultivation of ginger. In grocery hypermarkets they sell broken ginger rhizomes, which are quite suitable for germination. A piece of such a rhizome is placed in a pot with good drainage and covered with earth (you can use a universal soil). With moderate moistening of the earth, seedlings will appear in a few days - a week.