Seed Propagation

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Seed Propagation
Seed Propagation
Video: Seed Propagation
Video: Seed Propagation 2023, February
Seed propagation
Seed propagation

Seed propagation is one of the ways to propagate indoor plants and is very interesting. In addition, this method of reproduction allows you to get new forms of plants, for example, with a different color of flowers, terry, etc.

For a start, it is better to try to grow light annuals from seeds, they bring quick and tangible results. This, in turn, encourages many to try to grow more interesting plants from seeds, such as cacti, cycads, ferns or Saintpaulias. Seeds of rarer plants are more difficult to germinate, but can be much more interesting.

Many perennial houseplants germinate slowly, so it can take several years before they reach a significant size, so if you want to purchase seeds from the store, carefully read the instructions for them, which indicate the timing of germination, planting and flowering. If you need a lot of plants, plant on a tray, otherwise you should use pots.

It is not a problem to purchase seeds of indoor plants now. In flower or garden shops they sell lung seeds in the culture of asparagus, some palms, begonias, strelitzia, gloxinia, etc. If you want to purchase seeds of rarer plants, you can do this through the online store or by ordering on the forum. It is very important to think about whether you can provide the necessary conditions for the plant, its special requirements. For example, Strelitzia is a beautiful plant, but it needs a lot of space and light. Also, always pay attention to the sowing dates (for example, it is better to sow cyclamens in the fall), and the expiration date of the seeds.

Seed propagation
Seed propagation

When propagating indoor plants with seeds, it is very important to properly treat the seeds. Most seeds are pre-soaked and then pickled.

  • Soaking - depends on the density of the seed coat and on the moisture content of the seeds. Soak for at least a day in boiled water at room temperature, putting the seeds in two layers of a piece of gauze or bandage. Epin can be added to the soaking water (1 ml of the preparation per 1 liter of water).
  • Dressing - disinfection of seeds in order to destroy pathogens that could get on the seeds when collected from the mother plant. Etching is carried out using a 1% solution of potassium permanganate (1 g of powder per 1 liter of water), for 20-30 minutes, but only after pre-soaking in clean water for a day (soaking dry seeds, you can burn them). After pickling in potassium permanganate, the seeds must be rinsed in clean running water. In addition to potassium permanganate, you can use a 2-3% solution of hydrogen peroxide heated to 38-40 ° C (measured with a mercury thermometer) soaking is carried out for 7-10 minutes. Also, seed dressing can be carried out in solutions of fungicides (foundazol, maxim, allett, chorus).
  • Sparging - especially "non-germinating" seeds, can be prepared by this method. Bubbling is based on placing seeds in an aqueous environment saturated with oxygen. To do this, use an aquarium compressor. The seeds are wrapped or even sewn up (so as not to open) in gauze or cloth (if the seeds are very small) bags, and placed in a tall vase or jar, filled with water and turned on the compressor. Sparging for indoor plants lasts 10-12 hours. The seeds can then be sown.

Seed preparation for sowing - some preparation techniques, including soaking, dressing, bubbling, heat treatment.

Seed stratification - an article about the preparation of seeds requiring a cold period (sometimes at sub-zero temperatures) before sowing.

Long-germinating seeds of plants such as camellias, pandanuses, asparagus, palms and other hard-skinned plants require pre-treatment before sowing. It consists in soaking the seeds for 3-5 days in water or scalding with boiling water, carefully sawing off the thick skin of the seed - this technique is called scarification.

A good result is obtained by treating seeds with aloe juice. Intact small leaves of aloe can be stored for 25 days at + 3 ° C. After this time, the juice is squeezed out of the leaves and the seeds are soaked in it. As a result of this treatment, the seeds are pecked faster, and the flowering of plants obtained from such seeds is accelerated.

For disinfection, the soil is scalded 1-2 times with boiling water or simply ignited. This should not be done when sowing heather plants.

Sowing seeds

Seed propagation
Seed propagation

Seed sowing dates

Sowing dates are individual for each plant family, but for the majority they still fall in the spring. Long germinating seeds (bauhinia, strelitzia, brugmansia, cyclamens, palms, conifers) are usually sown in January-February. Fast germinating seeds (tamarind, hibiscus, antigonon, beaumont, large-flowered sesbania, asparagus) - in March-April, as with earlier sowing, the seedlings will stretch out due to lack of light.

Fast growing and early flowering plants are sown in May (for example, aquilegia for balcony floriculture). With a certain effort, you can sow seeds of indoor plants at any other time of the year, even in autumn, if you have the opportunity to provide warmth and plenty of light. Additional lighting with fluorescent lamps is almost always necessary when sowing in autumn and winter, but those who have northern window sills or windows of a different orientation, but shaded from the street, may also need additional lighting.

What to plant seeds in

The traditional planting medium for most houseplants is a mixture of peat and sand mixed in equal proportions, which are suitable for most seeds. You can also add vermiculite (1/4 part) to this mixture. Avoid using ready-to-use indoor plant mixes as they are higher in nutrients and may inhibit germination, but commercially available seedling soil mixes can be used.

seed propagation
seed propagation

The seeds of some plants can be planted in clean river sand (coarse and washed) and even in pure vermiculite. These substrates are not nutritious and are only suitable for those plants that can be easily transplanted, cut into earthen mixtures in pots, or for which foliar feeding is permissible, since the seed supply used by the seedling quickly ends.

Since the main danger for seedlings is fraught with diseases, in order to prevent the development of the "black leg", the substrate must be disinfected (heated in the oven or microwave).

Sowing seeds in a pot or box

Fill a pot or box with earth or sand and level the earth with a board or piece of hard cardboard, then tamp it gently. Then spread the seeds over the surface as evenly as possible. Do not plant seeds too densely, otherwise you will have to thin out and plant them ahead of time, do not spare the planting area. If the seeds are not too small or the bag does not say to leave them in the light, sprinkle them on top with a thin layer of soil. The thickness of the soil layer should be equal to the thickness of the seeds. Those. if the seeds are dusty, they are not sprinkled with earth at all, if the seed is about 4mm in diameter, then it is slightly pressed into the soil to a depth of 3-4mm.

Seed propagation
Seed propagation

Now the soil needs to be moistened. If the seeds are large, you can use a watering can with frequent sprinkler. If the seeds are small and almost not covered with earth, it is necessary to moisten the crops only from a spray bottle so as not to wash the seeds out of the ground. Cover the tray or drawer with a piece of glass or a plastic bag. It is better to leave a gap in the glass, and if you are using a film, then pierce holes in it. Follow the instructions on the seed bag for temperature and light. Air the crops for half an hour at least twice a day.

Sowing in peat tablets

For the convenience of gardeners and florists, peat tablets were invented. They are sticks of pressed peat, enclosed in a thin woven material. In the middle of the tablet there is a recess for the seed. These tablets are very convenient for single-piece large seeds (eg asparagus, palms). The seed is placed in a recess and the tablet is moistened with water. It absorbs a lot of water, swells and "grows", after getting wet, the seed, if necessary, can be pressed into the loose peat. The grid around the perimeter of the tablet does not allow it to lose its shape and disintegrate, and when the seed rises and the seedlings grow up, they, together with the tablet, are completely planted in a pot. This is convenient for peat tablets for those plants whose seedlings do not tolerate transplanting and root damage poorly. Peat tablets are very loose and dry quickly, but easily absorb water,so watch out for watering.

Sowing in peat pots

The method is also very convenient for garden seedlings and indoor flowers. In peat pots, soil is poured for seedlings, or a mixture of peat and sand in equal parts, the height of the earth may not reach the edge of the pot 1 cm.Then one seed is planted, or several (usually in flowering crops). The pots are placed on a common tray, the earth is watered from a watering can or moistened with a spray bottle. You can cover the pots with a bag or glass, remembering to ventilate.

Crop care

Seed propagation
Seed propagation

Crop care consists of periodic spraying or gentle watering from the pan, wiping sweaty glasses, and light airing.

You need to be especially careful to avoid overdrying or waterlogging the soil. Even succulent plants that do not tolerate waterlogging in adulthood do not tolerate overdrying in the seedling stage. Crops are moistened only with water, the temperature of which is 2-3 ° C higher than room temperature. The temperature of the land with crops depends on the species needs. Some plants germinate well at an average temperature of 22-26 ° C, some need a higher temperature of 30-32 ° C. In this case, you can maintain this temperature by placing the pot or box of seeds on a battery or electric heating pad.

When shoots appear, the glass is partially or completely removed and the plants are placed closer to the light, but for the first 1-2 days they are shaded from direct sunlight.

The intensity of additional illumination depends on the family, genus and even the type of plants, and is selected individually. In any case, you need to closely monitor the seedlings: signs of a lack of light are slow growth and strong elongation of the sprout. In autumn and winter, the time for additional lighting of plants should be approximately 12-16 hours, in spring-summer from 6 to 12 hours (depending on natural light). Sometimes, a group of plants requires not one lamp or even two, but three or four. Supplementary lighting should be organized so that the seedlings are illuminated evenly from all sides. Most often, the light source is placed on top, at a distance from 5 cm (for cacti and succulents) to 20 cm (for leafy indoor, for example, palms). If the lamp is compact, on a regular base, then it can illuminate a small round bowl with seedlings. If the seeds are planted in a box,it is better to use a long lamp (tube).

Seed propagation
Seed propagation

In addition to watering and supplementary lighting, some seedlings need special care - removing the seed coat. This is usually necessary for seedlings with large seeds in a dense shell. When a sprout appears, the cracked seed coat gradually "slides" from the cotyledon leaves. But if it dries out a lot, it can stick to the folded leaves. Sometimes it gradually slides off by itself, if it is often moistened, sometimes it needs help, pick up and remove using a toothpick or cotton swab. If such "caps" are not removed in time, the seed coats block the light so necessary for the seedlings, and the cotyledon leaves, growing under them, are deformed.

Seedling picking

To form a strong root system when growing seeds, a pick is carried out. A pick is carried out when 1 or 2 pairs of true leaves develop at the seedlings, much less often it is carried out at the stage of development of cotyledon leaves (for example, if a pot accidentally falls). They dive 1-3 times, while each time the plants are transplanted into a more nutritious earthy mixture. There are plants that do not tolerate a pick, and there are plants that need 4-5 picks for better growth. If there are such features, then read about it in the encyclopedic section.

Plants dive with a pointed peg (can be made from a simple pencil). The technique is as follows: with one hand, a peg is stuck into the ground near the seedling, and with the other hand, the seedling is slightly lifted from the ground. You can remove the seedling with a special dive fork (this is such a stick, forked at the end), but in any case, this must be done very carefully so as not to break off the stem. If the earthen mixture is stuck together and the seedlings do not lend themselves well to the ground, then it is better to gently shake it out together with the soil and free the roots from the substrate on the table. Then a deep hole is made in the ground, in a new pot, and the root system is placed there so that the roots do not bend. Then they squeeze the ground around the roots with a stick. The dive is carried out into moderately damp ground, and the dived plants are sprayed.For better rooting for 1-2 days, the dived seedlings can be covered with a cap (cut off from a plastic bottle) or placed in a bag (straighten the edges, but do not tie), and also protect from direct sun. You can spray seedlings using phytostimulants - epin, zircon, amulet, see phytohormones.

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