Table of contents:
Aroid family. Aglaonema is of Indo-Malay origin - native to Asia, regions with tropical and subtropical climates. In nature, according to modern data, there are 22 species.
- Aglaonem species
- Aglaonema care
- Aglaonem cultivation problems
- Aglaonema pests
Aglaonema is a relative of dieffenbachia and therefore is somewhat similar to it, differs in narrower leaves and sizes (aglaonema is much smaller than dieffenbachia, and the plant itself has the shape of a bush, a week of a tree). In addition, aglaonema blooms for quite a long time and form fruits. It is one of the most suitable plants for hydroponic culture.
The classification and taxonomy of Aglaonema has undergone major changes in recent years. In fact, experts reshuffled the Aglaonema genus as a deck of cards, the latest data in the databases of famous botanical gardens is dated 2012, many of the species, variations and forms are still debated.
- Aglaonema modest Aglaonema modestum is a perennial evergreen with an erect stem, native to the tropical rainforests of Bangladesh, China and Taiwan. The internodes are very short - in a young bush they sit very tightly, which gives the impression that they form a rosette. Over time, the stem extends upward, the leaf stalks lengthen, especially large specimens require a garter so that the stem does not fall over. Leaves are oblong-elliptical, leathery, pointed at the apex, 15-25 cm long, 7-9 cm wide, with pronounced venation. Cover is oblong-lanceolate, 5-7 cm long, finely pointed at the apex, ear 3-4.5 cm long. Synonyms: Aglaonema acutispathum, Aglaonema costatum var. viride, Aglaonema laoticum.
- Aglaonema changeable Aglaonema commutatum is a powerful bushy plant with erect stems, reaching 1-1.5 m in height and the same in width. Originally from Indonesia and the Philippines. Leaves on long petioles, oblong-elliptical or lanceolate, about 20-30 cm long and 5-10 cm wide. When flowering, aglaonema changeable forms up to 6 peduncles up to 20 cm long. Inflorescence of a cob with a light green cover, 5-6 cm long. Synonyms: Aglaonema commutatum var. commutatum, Aglaonema commutatum var. robustum, Aglaonema maculatum, Aglaonema marantifolium var. commutatum, Aglaonema robustum. The species has three variations: Aglaonema commutatum var. elegans, Aglaonema commutatum var. maculatum, Aglaonema commutatum var. warburgii.
- Aglaonema ribbed Aglaonema costatum is a short plant with a lodging underground stem. It has wider leaves on short petioles, with a pronounced central vein and light spots and strokes. Some forms on the surface of the leaf on a medium green background have silvery stripes, almost parallel, even, and the pattern is somewhat reminiscent of the pattern on the leaves of calathea. Peduncle one up to 15 cm long, ear about 3 cm long. Synonyms: previously allocated in separate forms - f. costatum, f. foxii and variations - var. maculatum and var. foxii - now included in Aglaonema costatum, only two forms remained separately distinguished: Aglaonema costatum f. immaculatum and Aglaonema costatum f. virescens.
- Aglaonema curly Aglaonema crispum is a strongly branching large bush with leaves up to 30 cm long, elliptical in shape. Leaf with a rounded base, pointed at the top, slightly wavy along the edge. The leaf surface is grayish-silvery; different varieties have a different pattern. The ear is about 3 cm long. Synonyms: Aglaonema roebelinii, Schismatoglottis crispa, Schismatoglottis roebelinii.
In general, aglaonema has many varieties, suppliers of exotic plants do not indicate their species, at best they write a variety. Most of them are interspecific hybrids, and sometimes they appear as a variety of a certain species. But the care and conditions of the aglaonema are no different for different varieties, so it is enough to know that this is really an aglaonema.
Aglaonema prefers warm content all year round. In summer, the temperature is normal, depending on weather conditions, the optimal temperature is 22-26 ° C. In winter it depends on lighting. If the plant stands on a bright sunny window, then the temperature is normal, room temperature. If in winter the illumination is greatly reduced, a cooler temperature of about 18-20 ° C is desirable, otherwise, the plant will stretch strongly and lose its decorative appearance. Aglaonems do not like cold drafts.
Bright, diffused light, variegated varieties with some direct sun in the morning or evening. In spring and summer, aglaonema needs shading from direct sunlight between 11 am and 4 pm. Good lighting is also required in winter, you can even place the pots on the south window.
Aglonema from spring to autumn needs abundant watering, moderate in winter. For irrigation, use only soft, well-settled water at room temperature or warm. Aglaonema, despite its origin from tropical rainforests, tolerates the drying out of an earthen coma, even a completely dry land within a few days will not lead to loss of leaves. Therefore, the optimal irrigation regime is after drying the earthy coma, the next day or every other day.
From March to September, every two weeks, aglaonema is fed with a special fertilizer for decorative deciduous plants (Uniflor-growth, Uniflor-micro, Pocon, Kristalon, Agricola, Bona Forte).
The optimum humidity is 50-60%. But in general, aglaonema is quite tolerant of lower humidity as well. For many gardeners, it grows without spraying and does not suffer. It can only be damaged by the directional flow of hot air from the batteries in winter. To protect the plant, the pot can be placed on a wide pan of water, or the battery can be covered with a screen that directs the hot air to the other side. Washing the leaves of the aglaonema from dust under a warm shower is also helpful.
Young plants are transplanted annually, large specimens in 2-3 years. The transplant is carried out in the spring. Plant aglaonema in wide, but not too high pots. Soil - 2 parts sod, 1 part leaf, 1 part peat and 1 part sand. It would be nice to add a little charcoal and brick chips to the soil. Aglaonema grows well and even more so only blooms in a cramped pot.
Aglaonema is propagated in spring and summer by apical and stem cuttings, and during transplantation, shoots with several leaves and roots are separated. There is nothing difficult in the propagation of aglaonema by cuttings, it easily takes root in a jar of water (if it is light, even in winter), or in a pot of earth, if placed in a transparent plastic bag and ventilated twice a day, and always keep the soil in a slightly moist state … Aglaonema tolerates separation of the bush well if it is carried out carefully by cutting the roots with a knife, and not tearing the lump into pieces. It grows quite quickly after rooting.
Some species and hybrids of aglaonema stretch up quite strongly, after 3-4 years the compact bush builds up a vertical stem and a garter to the support is required. Large large specimens of aglaonema do not fit on a windowsill or shelf, the pots can be placed on the floor, but note that then the leaves of the plant, especially in the lower part of the stem, will be below the line of light. Despite the fact that aglaonema is a rather shade-tolerant plant, from a lack of light, it begins to lose the lower leaves, as well as dieffenbachia. In addition, the temperature near the floor is usually 2-3 degrees lower, which should be taken into account when airing. It would be more correct to put the pot with aglaonema not on the floor, but on a bedside table, a table by the window or a special flower stand.
Thrips on Aglaonema leaves leaves brown spots
This aglaonema stands in the corner, near a hot battery, and you can see how poor it is to lean towards the light
Aglaonema easily forms root suckers that can be separated during transplantation
Aglaonema cultivation problems
Brown leaf edges, lethargic leaves - too little watering, too dry or cold air, or vice versa - excessive watering, long drying out of the earth. To understand why, dig deeper into the soil and determine if it is dry enough for the next watering.
Yellowing of the leaves of aglaonema - when watering with hard chlorinated water, lack of light.
Dry, brown leaf tips - due to insufficiently humid air, after all, aglaonema is a plant of tropical rainforests. It is necessary to increase the humidity around the plant. Also, the reason may be a lack of nutrients in the soil or their excess. Remember when you transplanted the plant, and in what land.
Loss of color - too bright light, burns may appear from the midday sun: first the leaves turn pale, then gray or brown oblong spots appear. If there are stains, it does not bother to check if the pest has wound up.
Spider mite: many years have passed since I wrote this article in the first edition, aglaonema has been living with me for 15 years, during this time there were all kinds of pests, but the mite, oddly enough, appeared on it only once, from close contact with fuchsia. It was not discovered immediately, after the appearance of a pair of yellow leaves. Aglaonema is compact (I plant it every two years by dividing the bush), so I got rid of the tick very quickly: turning the pot upside down, I water it with a hot (45 ° C) shower for 1-2 minutes. Then I turn it over and water it for another 1-2 minutes on top. Usually, two such showers with an interval of 5 days are enough to do without acaricides - drugs against ticks.
Thrips are much more dangerous for aglaonema - these pests are hardly noticeable on variegated leaves, but they eat it like a favorite delicacy. Symptoms: gray or brown spots appear on the leaves, irregularly shaped, along the edges, in the center. Some of the leaves turn yellow. Black drops or crumbs are visible on the surface of the leaf, about 1 mm in size. In this case, you need to wash the plant with a soapy sponge, on both sides of the leaf, then rinse with clean water. And add an insecticide when watering: pour a solution of an actara or a confidor. Thrips is a flying pest, so look for signs of infestation on other plants in your home.
Mealybugs: Can also infect aglaonema, they powerfully suck up juice, draining the plant. The leaves bend, dry and fall off, and the plant eventually dies. Signs - white shaggy, like cotton lumps at the base of the trunk and leaf axils. You need to fight them with the help of the same insecticides - pouring with a solution of actara (1 g per 1-1.5 liters of water). You can spray it with actellik or karbofos (not in the apartment), but first you need to remove the pests with a cotton swab or a cotton swab dipped in alcohol.