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Kutrov family. Homeland of the tropics of South America (Brazil, Guiana, Guyana and Suriname). Naturalized in the coastal regions of northern Western Australia, as well as in China, the US Southeast (Florida). In Australia, Allamanda has taken root so well that it belongs to ecological weeds, the invasive plant has filled all open areas in several national parks!
An exotic and rather rare flowering plant that loves greenhouse conditions: moist fresh air, warmth, space and light. On sale you can find the type of Allamanda yellow (popularly laxative) Allamanda cathartica. This is a tall, rapidly growing liana, in 3-4 years, if not cut, it can reach a height of 3 meters. Allamanda is grown not as an ampelous plant, but as a shrub that needs support in the form of a lattice. By the way, among the people, among the local population of Brazil, Allamanda was called the Golden Trumpet (the name comes from the appearance of the flower) or the Golden Vine - the shape of a flowering bush like climbing roses.
Older stems are predominantly woody and brownish in color, while young stems are generally green and hairless. Stems and leaves contain milky juice and are poisonous!
Leaves are simple whorled - arranged in groups of three or four, on very short petioles (2-5 mm). Obovate or somewhat elongated (oblong-lanceolate) in shape, with a pointed tip. In natural conditions, the leaves are 10-17 cm long and 3-6 cm wide, when grown at home in pots, they are somewhat smaller, up to about 12-15 cm. In general, the foliage of Allamanda is very decorative - shiny, leathery (without pubescence).
The most common species variations:
- Allamanda cathartica var. grandiflora Allamanda yellow large-flowered - with light yellow, lemon flowers, about 10-12 cm in diameter, grouped in several pieces at the ends of the shoots.
- Allamanda cathartica var. hendersonii Allamanda yellow Henderson - with red buds, which, when blooming, turn into golden yellow flowers.
- Allamanda cathartica var. nobilis Allamanda noble - with reddish stems and long lanceolate leaves. The flowers are yellow with a white throat, up to 12 cm in diameter, very fragrant.
- Allamanda cathartica var. schottii Allamanda Schott - with warty branches and pubescent stems. The flowers are yellow with thin brown stripes in the throat, 4-6 cm long and about 4 cm in diameter.
No less decorative is the view of Allamanda violet Allamanda violacea - this vine is distinguished by its slow growth, rather compact bush size, wonderful for home cultivation. Leaves are oval, densely covered with hairs, collected in 4 pieces, on average about 10-12 cm long. Apical flowers, single or 2-3, light purple or lavender.
Caring for Allamanda
Temperature: Allamanda is thermophilic. In summer, it prefers normal temperature, for the growth of leaves and maintaining a decorative appearance - within 20-25 ° C, suffocates from the high temperature in a closed room, the leaves turn yellow. In winter, the plant requires slightly cooler conditions; it would be nice to find a place in the house where the temperature does not rise above 20 ° C, but not below 14 ° C.
Lighting: Allamanda is light-requiring, in spring, summer and even more so in winter, she needs full-fledged solar lighting. Moreover, in the warm season - at least 4 hours, and in winter, if you do not have southern windows, you may need additional lighting with fluorescent lamps.
Watering: Abundant in summer, the soil should not dry out completely to dust, but should have time to dry in the upper half of the pot. From autumn to early spring, watering is more moderate, the land should have time to completely dry out before the next watering, stand dry for a day or two.
Fertilizer: In spring and summer (from March to August), allamanda is fed every week with a complex mineral fertilizer for decorative flowering plants, diluting it in a half dose.
Air humidity: Allamanda likes humid air, optimally in the range of 50-70%. In the wild, allamand seeds are spread with streams of rainwater, and it grows more often along streams or in coastal areas. If the humidity in the hygrometer drops below 50%, start spraying in the morning and evening. If the humidity is below 30%, turn on a humidifier or place the pot on a very wide pan with damp moss.
When buying a small young plant in the spring, be sure to transplant it. In the future, watch how the plant grows, and if roots appear from the drainage hole, another transplant may be required. Sometimes young plants have to be transplanted twice a summer. Also, the need arises when the soil is salinized, especially if a crust has already formed due to hard water. Allamanda does not tolerate alkalization, the reaction of the soil must be acidic (pH 5.6-6.0), and even strongly acidic (pH 5.1-5.5). If you want to buy soil from a store, choose one that is designed for azaleas and conifers.
Planned transplanting in the spring, in February-March, we simultaneously prune the shoots to stimulate flowering. The soil for allamanda should be nutritious and very porous: 2 parts of sod land, 1 part of leafy soil, 1 part of humus, 1 part of pine bark (or needles) and 2 parts of fine gravel. It is imperative to pour a high drainage on the bottom! As you remember, Allamanda naturally grows along streams and roadsides, on soil containing a large proportion of sand stones and other drainage (but not clay), so it is not afraid of torrential rains. At home, everything is not so - the roots are limited by the space of the pot, so the soil should be selected in such a structure that after watering it dries out no longer than 4-5 days in warm weather.
Allamanda is propagated by seeds and semi-lignified cuttings, cut in the spring. Cuttings are rooted in a room greenhouse with soil heating; it is better to use pure vermiculite or peat in half with vermiculite as a substrate. Be sure to sterilize it. Rooting conditions are high air humidity, moderate heat (no higher than 22 ° C) and light. If you are having trouble rooting the cuttings, it may be too dark (or short daylight hours), hot and / or dry.
As for seed reproduction, it is usually not difficult. It is better to soak the seeds for 2 days, if possible, to bubble. Sowing on a wet substrate of peat and vermiculite in equal parts. It is convenient to use transparent plastic cake jars for sowing; they need to be opened and ventilated twice a day. Temperature for germination is 24-25 ° C. Do not overdry the soil! Germination takes about 3-6 weeks. Plant in pots with a diameter of 8 cm, when the seedlings grow 6-7 cm in height.
A feature of caring for Allamanda is pruning shoots in the spring, during transplantation. This is necessary in order, firstly, to stimulate more lush flowering, and secondly, to give the bush a more compact size.
- If allamanda does not bloom or blooms poorly, then the reasons may be too warm and dry wintering, lack of lighting, lack of nutrients in the soil, or overfeeding with nitrogenous fertilizers.
- Leaves curl, turn brown and fall off if the ambient temperature is too low, especially in wet soil. Those. if it is below 12 ° C in winter and below 18 ° C in summer, you need to dry the soil very well.
- Shoots and leaves wilted - if this happened in summer, then due to the drying out of the earthy coma, in winter - it is more likely that it is too cold and humid.
- If the leaves turn yellow, interveinal chlorosis appears - check the soil, remember that Allamanda prefers acidic soils, measure the acidity, replace the soil.