Orange Citrus Sinensis - Varieties, Care And Cultivation At Home, Possible Problems

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Orange Citrus Sinensis - Varieties, Care And Cultivation At Home, Possible Problems
Orange Citrus Sinensis - Varieties, Care And Cultivation At Home, Possible Problems
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Root family. There are no wild-growing oranges in nature - these trees are obtained by crossing two types of citrus: pomelo and tangerine. At first, the results of such hybridization were not impressive, but the selection gave results, and as a result, under the name orange, we have a number of cultivated orange species.

All of them have the name Citrus, but two groups are distinguished among them:

  • sweet orange Citrus sinesis
  • bitter orange (or orange) Citrus aurantium

In turn, these oranges were crossed with other citrus fruits and received other varieties, for example, Orange-bergamot - a hybrid of bitter orange and citron.

Sweet orange

Orange Citrus sinensis Orange or Sweet Orange is a hybrid between pomelo and tangerine. Sweet orange is also called Chinese orange or Portuguese orange. And it is precisely his fruits that we usually buy in the store.

A sweet orange is an evergreen tree that can be grown in a greenhouse, conservatory, or at home. Leaves are oval-elongated. The petioles have small pterygoid appendages. The flowers are white, bisexual, fragrant. The orange blooms on the branches of the current growth. The fruits are roundish, yellow and orange in color. Among the varieties of sweet oranges, several varieties are known that are suitable for indoor growing: Washington Navell, Valencia, Gamlin.

sweet orange
sweet orange

Orange Washington Navell Washingtoh Navel

orange valencia
orange valencia

Orange Valencia Valencia Late

orange
orange

Orange blossom (cultivar unknown)

Grafted orange trees begin to bear fruit in 3-4 years, flowering and fruits may appear earlier, but they must be removed so as not to deplete the plant. The fruits are left when there are at least 15 mature leaves per fruit.

Bitter orange

Citrus aurantium has other names Sour orange, orange, bigaradia, it is also a hybrid between pomelo and tangerine, it has a bitter taste of fruits, therefore, in its pure form, as a fruit, it is not used for food. But from the pulp of a bitter orange or orange pectin is isolated, which is widely used in the confectionery industry. Essential oils used in cosmetology are obtained from the zest. At home they grow orange and Pavlovian orange.

Pavlovsky orange
Pavlovsky orange

Pavlovsky orange Pavlovsky

orange valencia
orange valencia

orange

orange valencia
orange valencia

Pomeranets

Orange care

Temperature:

Homemade oranges are demanding for light and warmth. Budding, flowering and fruit setting are best at an average air and soil temperature of + 15-18 ° C. In winter, it is recommended to keep oranges in a bright cold room - about 10-12 ° C, but colder content is also possible - up to + 4 ° C. The lack of cold wintering can lead to the fact that the plant will not bear fruit.

Lighting:

Bright diffused light, with an obligatory amount of direct sun in the morning or evening. The sill of the southeast and west windows will do. Shading from the direct sun is needed in spring and summer during the hottest hours on the south window. Different varieties of oranges need a sunny spot in different ways. Many of them are rather shade-tolerant, i.e. in the absence of the sun, they have a dense crown, but this is usually not enough for fruiting. For example, the popular Washington Navell sweet orange variety only bears fruit on the southern windowsill.

Watering:

In summer and spring it is abundant, so that the top layer of soil in the pot (the upper half or to the depth of a finger) has time to dry out before the next watering. In winter, watering is more moderate, depending on the temperature thereafter. If the temperature is around 18 ° C, as the soil will dry out at the top of the pot, wait another 2-3 days before watering. If it is lower, about 12-13 ° C, then you need to wait about 8-10 days. If it is even colder in the region of + 5-8 ° C, then the orange is practically not watered, except that once a month and a half a little.

As with all citrus fruits, when there is a lack of moisture, the orange leaves begin to droop, but it is worth watering - they restore elasticity. This is a good enough guide not to flood the plant. Water when the leaves begin to drop slightly. From waterlogging, the orange rots, and it is very difficult to cure.

Air humidity:

Oranges are regularly sprayed during the summer, but if they are kept in a room with central heating in winter, they are sprayed in winter. In this case, cover the batteries with a screen or wet towels.

Transfer:

Young orange trees must be transplanted annually. The transshipment should not be carried out if the roots of the plant have not yet braided an earthen ball. In this case, it is enough to change the top layer of soil in the pot. Fruiting trees are transplanted no more than once every 2-3 years. Transplanted before the start of growth. At the end of the growth, the plants are not recommended to be replanted. When transplanting, the earthen lump should not be severely destroyed. Good drainage must be ensured. The root collar in the new dish should be at the same level as in the old dish.

  • Soil for young oranges: 2 parts turf, 1 part leafy soil, 1 part humus and 1 part sand.
  • Soil for adult oranges: 3 parts turf, 1 part leaf, 1 part humus, 1 part sand.

Fertilizing oranges:

In early spring, with new growth, the orange can be fed with fertilizer for decorative leafy plants or organic matter - they have enough nitrogen to stimulate new shoots. Since May, you can fertilize with fertilizer for citrus fruits or decorative flowering plants, where the proportion of potassium and phosphorus is higher. If potassium deficiency appears on the leaves - an edge burn, when there is a dry brown edge at the edges and ends of the leaves, you can feed it with potassium fertilizers - potassium monophosphate or potassium nitrate.

Top dressing is applied only on wet soil. With additional artificial lighting in winter, especially fruit-bearing oranges, they also need to be fertilized, but not more often than once a month, with a half dose of fertilizer.

Reproduction

Seeds, cuttings, grafting. 'Wilds' grow from seeds - fruiting can occur only after 8-12 years, with good care and proper formation. For faster production of a fruiting orange tree, cuttings and grafting are used. It is advisable to use grapefruit or pomelo as a rootstock for an orange. But the orange itself, or rather wild pits, are widely used as a rootstock for lemons.

Cuttings root well in spring in March-April in very good light. It is best to root in a mixture of sand and universal soil (in equal parts) in a zip bag - it is easier to hermetically close and easily open if necessary. It is enough to moisten the soil for the cutting once, stick in the cutting, sprinkle water a couple of times from the spray bottle, close the bag and hang it on the tape by the glass. Do not touch or open until roots are visible on the bottom of the bag. It is better to cut off the tops of the young growth on cuttings, about 10 cm long into four leaves. Remove the bottom sheet, leave three leaves, do not shorten them, but place them in the bag as a whole.

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