Table of contents:
- Types of anthurium
- Anthurium - care and cultivation
- Anthurium transplant
- Reproduction of anthurium
- Problems of growing anthurium
- Types of anthurium
- Care and cultivation
- Anthurium transplant
- Reproduction of anthurium
- Problems of growing anthurium
Aroid family. The homeland of anthuriums is the tropics of America (Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador). In nature, these are about 800 species of epiphytic or semi-epiphytic plants.
Types of anthurium
Scherzer's anthurium Anthurium scherzerianum - has a shortened aboveground or underground stem. The leaves are green, on long petioles of an oblong shape, pointed at the end, 15-20 cm long and 5-7 cm wide. The peduncle is twice as long as the leaf petioles. The cover of the inflorescence is ovoid, about 10-15 cm long and 5-7 cm wide. The colors are different, from white, orange, red, to variations with different color splashes. The ear is up to 10 cm long, yellow, orange or reddish, slightly twisted in a spiral shape.
Anthurium multi-dissected Anthurium polyschistum is an unusual species with finger-dissected leaves on long and thin petioles. One leaf has about 5-9 segments. Each is linear-lanceolate, with a slightly wavy edge, 10-15 cm long and about 1.5 cm wide.This is a decorative leafy species, its flowers are not particularly attractive - a light green or cream-colored coverlet, slightly bent back, the ear is also creamy green.
Crystal anthurium Anthurium Crystallinum - grown as an ornamental deciduous plant (inflorescences are less decorative than other anthuriums). Has a shortened underground stem. Leaves on long petioles, heart-shaped, about 30-40 cm long and 20-30 cm wide. The leaf surface is velvety, from dark green to almost purple, with light veins that have a silvery or crystal luster. The peduncle is not much longer than the length of the leaf stalks. The cover of the inflorescence is about 8-10 cm long, the ear is long, about 2 cm, purple in color.
Anthurium Andre Anthurium Andreanum is a large plant up to 70-90 cm, the stem is shortened, aerial, leaf petioles are long, they sit tightly to each other. Leaves are green, heart-shaped, about 35-40 cm long and 20 cm wide. Peduncles are long, towering over a bush of leaves. The inflorescence has a dense leathery cover, broadly heart-shaped, with a tuberous surface, almost round in outline, about 2 cm long and 15-20 wide. The color of the bedspread ranges from white, pink to dark red, often mixed colors (for example, white and pink). The ear is 10-15 cm long, slightly bent, white or yellow in color.
Anthurium Andreanum 'Caribo'
Anthurium scherzerianum 'Amazone'
Anthurium - care and cultivation
Plants should be kept in a warm room, in summer the temperature is normal, room temperature, in winter it is optimal at 18-20 ° C, but isolated from the heating system. Winter minimum 15 ° C - the content of anthurium for 1.5-2 months at this temperature and very limited watering stimulates flowering. Protect from drafts!
Bright diffused light, an east window, northeast or northwest will do. Direct sun is permissible only in the morning or evening. In winter, additional lighting with lamps is possible. With a lack of light, the leaves are small, the flowers lose their color, the bush looks loose.
Watering is moderate, but regular, the topsoil should have time to dry out, but complete drying of the earth is not allowed. Those. the next watering, after the soil in the pot dries out in the upper third in the summer, and in the winter at least it dries out in the upper half of the pot. In nature, anthurium is a semi-epiphytic plant; at home, Anthurium also does not tolerate prolonged waterlogging, the roots easily rot. If in doubt whether it is necessary to water, then follow the rule: "it is better to dry out than to pour." Water for irrigation is used only soft (settled and boiled).
From March to September, feeding once every two weeks. Fertilizers for ornamental flowering plants (Kemira-lux, Uniflor-bud, Rainbow), the dose of fertilizers should be taken half the recommended dose! Orchid fertilizer can also be used (eg Bona forte, at the recommended dose).
It is recommended to regularly (morning and evening) spray with water, because anthuriums need very humid air - up to 80%. At the same time, the room should be well ventilated, otherwise, the plant is susceptible to fungal or bacterial diseases.
Transplanted into a substrate for bromeliads or orchids. Soil mixture: 1 part leaf, 1 part coniferous land (or pine bark), 1 part peat land and 0.5 part coarse, sifted from dust, sand, 0.5 part vermiculite. Pieces of charcoal and pine bark are added to the soil. If you have nowhere to take leafy land, you can use purchased land for azaleas, add vermiculite (perlite), pine bark, coconut fiber in equal parts. Be careful with sphagnum moss - it is very hygroscopic, if you put too much of it, you can overmoisten the substrate.
Plant better in shallow pots with good drainage. Holes can be made in the walls of plastic pots. After transplanting, especially protect from direct sunlight, spray often and water carefully. Anthurium is a semi-epiphyte plant, so its main requirement is good aeration of the soil, the roots must breathe, so the soil must be very loose. Those. after watering, water should flow through it almost instantly. The addition of coconut fiber, pieces of pine bark gives the substrate looseness. You can add some sphagnum moss. Soil pH should be slightly acidic, approximately pH = 6.
Anthurium - features of cultivation
Reproduction of anthurium
Anthuriums are propagated by apical cuttings that have a small number of aerial roots. It is also propagated by division, when lateral shoots develop, and by seeds. Delenki are planted in the spring, at the beginning of growth, during transplantation. A young plant should be planted in a loose substrate, in a mixture of leafy soil, vermiculite and pine bark. Plants grow faster in loose soil. Watering as it dries. If you got an anthurium stalk without roots, put it rooted in water by adding a tablet of activated carbon to it.
Problems of growing anthurium
The most basic problem with anthuriums is the appearance of various spots, as in the first photo. The reason is excessive watering and / or incorrectly selected substrate. Florists constantly forget that anthurium in nature leads an epiphytic or semi-epiphytic lifestyle. Those. grows with roots not in the ground, but only in a kind of substrate - a mixture of leafy soil, leaf litter and litter. This is a very loose substance, water does not stay in it after rains, it drains very quickly, and the roots are constantly ventilated. The heavier, denser the soil in the pot, the slower it dries, and the roots breathe worse.
What to do if such spots appear on the anthurium. First of all, make sure that the soil is selected correctly, that it is sufficiently loose. Secondly, check how wet it is - at the same time and check how loose it is - you can easily stick your finger into good soil and the roots will not interfere. If the ground in the back of the pot is damp, then you may still have flooded the plant. If the leaves have not lost their turgor, then it is enough to loosen the soil in the pot with a stick and let it dry thoroughly. If there are a lot of stains, then drying is not enough, you have to turn to chemical protection to destroy pathogens (fungal or bacterial infection that develops in a humid environment). It is best to use a systemic fungicide - foundationol.
If the plant's soil is very damp, and the leaves have begun to fade, it is necessary to urgently get the plant out of the ground and shake off the damp earth and dry the roots in rolls of toilet paper. Then spray with the same foundation and plant in fresh, dry soil.
Anthurium suffered from overflow
Anthurium turned black from hypothermia
Cyclamen tick on anthurium
And another very important rule: never try to compensate for the dry air of the room with unnecessary watering. Anthurium loves humid air, optimally about 50%. Find a way to increase the humidity without watering more frequently. The easiest way, of course, is to purchase a humidifier. If it is not there, place the pots on wide trays with water (so that water does not penetrate from the pot), put a room fountain next to it, cover the radiator with wet sheets, at worst, spray. Why not - because spraying does little to save the situation, except that spraying 4-5 times a day. In addition, if you spray too abundantly, the water flows down to the ground, which, again, threatens with waterlogging. And water that gets on the covers of the inflorescences can lead to the appearance of brown spots. Finally, the last reason to avoid spraying is with water,caught on the leaves, spores of fungi and bacteria are spread. Therefore, if you have spots on the leaves, you need to stop spraying and increase the humidity in another way. If you have, on the contrary, very high humidity in the apartment, then it is very important that the air does not stagnate, the room must be constantly ventilated, and the plants should not be crowded. If there is no way to ventilate once again, or it is too cold to open the window, place a small desktop fan of low power near the plants.and do not put the plants crowded. If there is no way to ventilate once again, or it is too cold to open the window, place a small desktop fan of low power near the plants.and do not put the plants crowded. If there is no way to ventilate once again, or it is too cold to open the window, place a small desktop fan of low power near the plants.
In the second photo, a plant that has suffered from a draft and hypothermia (by the way, it may have been watered the day before, which means that the root system has also been overcooled) - just, they forgot to close the window at night in the room. The leaves began to turn brown, first from the lower side of the petiole, then completely darkened. Anthurium is a thermophilic plant, but at the same time, if the ground is almost completely dry, the plant will calmly tolerate a drop in temperature even to 12-13 ° C, but if there is no draft. You should be especially careful when transporting a purchased plant home during the cold season, even 5-10 minutes in the cold (from the shopping center to the car in the parking lot) is enough for the plant to freeze. If the root system does not have time to supercool, the plant can be saved by placing it in a warm place and limiting watering.
Of the pests, ticks harm anthurium most of all (in the third photo, the defeat by a cyclamen mite). Young leaves develop pale, misshapen (crooked), with brown spots. Old leaves lose their color, punctures and discolored streaks are visible in the leaf lumen. Gradually, the leaves dry out. It is rather difficult to detect a tick at the initial stage, spider mites do not always form a noticeable cobweb, more often you can find them themselves, or their skins, on the back of a leaf in the form of fine white dandruff. You can get rid of the anthurium from the tick by first trying to rinse the leaves with a dog flea shampoo. If this does not help, use special acaricide preparations.