Flowers At Home - How To Start Planting Indoor Plants: Name, Purchase, Transplant

Table of contents:

Flowers At Home - How To Start Planting Indoor Plants: Name, Purchase, Transplant
Flowers At Home - How To Start Planting Indoor Plants: Name, Purchase, Transplant
Video: Flowers At Home - How To Start Planting Indoor Plants: Name, Purchase, Transplant
Video: How to repot a plant? | Beginners Guide to Repotting 2023, February
Anonim

We all begin to do something for the first time sometime. Someone, before starting to grow flowers, is interested in how difficult it is, where to start, where to get it, how to root, etc. But most hobbyists "get sick" with indoor plants suddenly, seeing a beautiful flower or a fruit-bearing tree, or having received it as a gift. And when the plant is already at home, a lot of questions arise, most of which relate to general issues of growing.

Let's try again to understand them and organize them.

Indoor flower names

home flowers
home flowers

We bring a purchase or a gift home, admire and think where to put it? We are looking for a place where the plant would look spectacular, where it should be comfortable. There are a great many houseplants, they all belong to different families and species. Without going deep into botanical concepts, taxonomy (classification of flowering plants), we still need to know something about our plant.

The plant has, above all, a botanical name. Usually, a reputable flower grower and supply firm will attach a plastic card to each pot or stick a paper label on the species and variety of the plant.

home plants
home plants

For example Botanical name: Dracaena marginata Tricolor. The first word of Dracaena Dracaena is the name of the whole genus of Dracaena. Marginata marginata is the name of the species, Tricolor tricolor is the name of the variety.

But, unfortunately, plant suppliers often do not bother drawing up such information cards, but stick a piece of paper, or write on a box with flowers: "Plant collection" or "Plant mix". It's about nothing at all, not the name of the species, not the genus - just plants. Usually, gerberas, hyacinths, etc. are sold with such tags. plants grown in huge numbers for the 8th of March. Therefore, if the store said that the variety is a mix - do not believe it, mix is ​​literally a "mixture". If you have such a stranger, then the first step is to establish his name. The easiest way to do this is by opening a topic in the Plants Definition forum and attaching a high-quality photo.

If you cut a stalk, or brought a twig of an unknown plant from abroad, then you need to do the same - take a photo and post it in a thread on the forum, you will definitely be helped to identify it.

Why do we need it? To understand what conditions your green friend needs. You can, of course, figure it out by trial and error, but there is some risk here. For example, capricious gardenias, often die after purchase, from waterlogging, and some plants need special conditions: a cool dormant period with limited watering (myrtle, cicas). Therefore, if you have determined the specific name of your plant, then after reading the information about it, you will have an idea of ​​what conditions it needs to create for it to grow and bloom.

Transplanting a purchased flower

plant transplant
plant transplant

One of the first questions that arises with the acquisition of a new flower is whether it is necessary to transplant, when, and in what. Usually you need to transplant. Firstly, the shipping pots (in which they are sold) are not entirely aesthetic (but it cannot be said that they are impractical), secondly, the soil in the pots is usually 100% peat, and the plants need more specific soils (some more nutritious, others looser, permeable, the third more moisture-absorbing), thirdly, usually in such pots everything is filled with roots and the plant is crowded.

A healthy, lush-looking plant, can be transplanted almost on the day of purchase, if the conditions in the apartment do not differ much from the store conditions. For example, in OBI, in the flower departments, it is very cool, and moving a plant into a room is stress for him, if we disturb the roots, he can react by dropping leaves. Therefore, such a plant must be placed for acclimatization - in other words, put in one place and let it get used to the temperature, light and watering for 2 weeks. During this time, you just need to watch. In addition, a pest or fungus may appear on the plant, and observation will allow the plant to be detected and treated.

transfer
transfer

Some growers immediately treat new flowers with insecticide and fungicide for prophylaxis, especially if they acquire a plant in questionable places. This practice is quite justified, indeed, in pots there may be, for example, mushroom mosquito larvae - not the worst pest, but very unpleasant.

Fungal infections in some cases can also be detrimental to flowers, especially if the plant in the store has been watered too much. For example, many orchids are susceptible to fungal infections, sometimes it is enough just to properly dry the substrate in a pot, and in other cases it is necessary to treat it with a foundation.

So, if the plant is healthy, carefully transported (not damaged or frost-bitten), you can immediately transplant, if you doubt the health of the plant, or the conditions in which it was, wait a week or two.

What to transplant the plant into. The appearance of the pot is a matter of taste. What kind of pot - plastic or earthen - the same. Pay attention to the following: it is advisable that the pan at the pot is not very small (so that excess water does not flow out), and there are good drainage holes at the bottom. Clay pots have a difference - some are covered with glaze from the inside, others are not. Those that are covered, in fact, do not differ from plastic ones - they do not absorb some of the water, like those that are not covered with glaze. This means that the frequency of watering will be different.

The size of the pot is very important. Some plants do not like too spacious pots (zamioculcas, many other succulents, they are not cramped, even if the roots have filled the entire pot), and some need spacious pots and a supply of nutrients (for example, palms). But you do not need to pick up a pot with a large margin, with excessive moisture (and this can happen by accident, if after watering the plants on the balcony, it gets colder), the earth turns sour, "does not breathe" and the roots rot.

Spots on the leaves

indoor plant diseases
indoor plant diseases

After the question with the transplant is determined, the following often arises: "what is it on the leaves"? Stains sick?

There are many reasons for the appearance of spots, it is necessary to consider each specific case, having before your eyes a "medical history" (how often the plant is watered, when transplanted, what was fed) and clear photos, questions can be asked on the forum. The most likely causes: frostbite of the plant during transportation home, sunburn, waterlogging of the ground, overfeeding with fertilizers or lack of nutrition, mechanical damage, chemical burns (for example, from spraying with zircon).

It happens due to a change in the watering regime (in the store they watered with a different frequency), changes occur on the leaves on the plant. If you water more than needed, too often, or the soil does not dry out for a long time, stains may appear on the plants. Moreover, it is often difficult to distinguish from what they are: overdrying or waterlogging. In both cases, they can be dry, brown, with or without yellowness. In order not to guess, you need to touch the soil, digging it deeper in the pot. Sometimes the ground is damp above, but inside is damp, if you take the plant out of the pot, the roots are partially rotted.

So if a flower has stains, the first step is to make sure you don't water too often. It must also be said that the overwhelming majority of plants, even from the humid tropics, tolerate drying out more easily than overflowing under indoor conditions. For example, ficuses, orchids, dracaena, anthuriums, gardenias, etc.

Another reason for the appearance of spots, as well as chlorosis, wrinkling and curling of leaves is overfeeding with fertilizers. Sometimes, amateur flower growers with increased zeal "look after" the flowers, feeding immediately after transplanting (when the supply of nutrients has not yet been used up), spraying with various stimulants, both in winter and summer. An excess of chemical elements in the soil is as harmful as their lack.

Place for flowers

indoor flowers
indoor flowers

Where to put flowers to make them light. The concept of "standing in a bright place" is very abstract, everyone interprets as they like. In recommendations for the care of any plant, there are usually three options for attitudes towards light:

plants that love bright diffused light, light partial shade: dark-leaf dracaena and dieffenbachia, arrowroot, aspidistra, philodendron and monster;

plants that prefer bright diffused light and a certain amount of sunlight in the morning or evening: eucalyptus, forest cacti (Ripsalidopsis, Schlumberger), palm trees, ficuses, wild rose, Saintpaulia, bromeliads, anthurium;

plants that need full sunlight: plumeria, adenium, most cacti, citrus fruits, passionflower;

There are very few plants belonging to the first group, most need direct sunlight, in the morning, evening or throughout the day, but usually, with the exception of the hottest midday hours, it is from 11 to 16 on the southern and southwestern windowsill.

Bright diffused light is a stream of sunlight pouring through a transparent material - through a tulle curtain, mesh, veil, and even through the openwork foliage of trees standing nearby. The denser the tulle on the windows, the less light it passes through and the closer the plants should be placed to the window. Organza gives a very good diffused light near the solar window - a thin transparent material, if it is of light colors, shades enough so that the plant next to it does not get burned and at the same time creates not too strong shading so that the shoots of the plant stretch out from lack of light.

Veil and organza with a printed pattern, as well as ordinary tulle - much denser fabrics, significantly conceal the light, and the plants behind such a curtain will be dark in autumn and winter, and especially light-loving in summer at the southern window.

If the plant care recommendations say "bright diffused light" - this means that such a flower can be placed on the eastern windowsill, on the north, northwest, sometimes southeast, if they are not shaded from the street. If you have 1-2 floors and there are trees outside the windows, then it will already be dark on the north, north-east and north-west windowsill.

shelves for flowers
shelves for flowers

If you have no shaded windows facing south, southwest, only very light-loving ones can be placed on such window sills, for example, cacti, some other succulents; not all plants will stand on the western window sill either. Eastern windows differ from western ones not in the intensity of sunlight, but in temperature! It is much cooler on the east window; from the night the temperature only starts to rise. In the west, the sun comes when the daytime temperature is at its maximum, and this combination of heat and sun on the south and west windows is just what most indoor plants cannot stand.

So, when choosing a place for a new plant in the house, consider first of all its photophilousness and your capabilities. If there is not enough natural light, arrange additional lighting, since incandescent lamps have remained in the last century, and LED lamps and fluorescent lamps are quite affordable.

shelves for flowers
shelves for flowers

Those who buy indoor flowers in order to decorate with them not the window sill, but the room, all the more so, must take care of additional lighting. Only a healthy, beautiful plant with an appearance characteristic of its species can decorate, and not an elongated specimen with thin leaves.

In addition, in conditions of short daylight hours from October (in cloudy weather from September) to the end of February, plants in rooms and on northern windowsills (or any other shaded from the street) are illuminated additionally for 8-10 hours, usually in the morning and evening (for example, from 6 to 9 hours and from 18 to 23 hours). In this case, the illumination should be at least 1000 lux. It is necessary to focus on the need of various plants for illumination: for shade-tolerant plants, 1500 lux, and for flowering plants and cacti - at least 5000 lux, for good growth about 8000 lux.

But the need for light also depends on the temperature in the room, if it is cool in winter, about 12-14 ° C (one could say cold, but rooms where 8-10 ° C are considered cold for flowers), then the plants tolerate the lack of light more easily, since all life processes are inhibited and a period of rest begins.

What land to plant a plant in

flower diseases
flower diseases

Another common question is which land to take for planting flowers and which one to choose from those sold in the store. If you buy, then the most popular ones with good reviews are “Terra vita”, “Fasco”. See the article "Soil for plants".

But these are universal soils, containing mainly peat (high and lowland in different proportions) and a little sand. For some plants, especially large, long-livers, with a strong root system, the peat soil is too light and poorly nutritious, nutrients are quickly consumed from it, and the plant begins to starve. Therefore, for such plants (palms, old ficuses, oranges, lemons, strelitzia, dieffenbachia, etc.), turf must be added to the ground. Sod land in its pure form is usually not sold in the store, it can be part of some soil, for example, "Auriki Gardens" for bonsai. And you can prepare it in the meadow by cutting off the sod layer. It must be sifted from scraps of grass roots.

indoor plant diseases
indoor plant diseases

For some plants, soil is needed that is loose, nutritious and at the same time light, then leafy earth, or leaf humus, can become the main component. It is picked under deciduous trees, usually under birches and lindens. Rak up last year's leaves and remove the top layer of the earth. Such soil is especially suitable for many ferns, arrowroot, bromeliads, and is added to the substrate for many other plants.

In addition to sod, leafy soil and peat, other components are added to the substrate for indoor plants - moss, vermiculite (perlite), bark, zeolite granules, fine expanded clay, charcoal, coconut fiber (or chips) and river sand. Sphagnum moss is added to increase the water-holding capacity of the soil. If the plant is prone to rot, does not tolerate waterlogging, then it is simply dangerous to add moss, but coconut chips are perfect (they do not rot). And sphagnum moss can be safely added only to arrowroot, some aroids and ferns - plants that naturally grow in the lower tier of a humid tropical forest.

Vermiculite, sand (not from a sandbox, but a large river), small expanded clay - are used as a baking powder so that the earth does not stick together, easily absorbs water, but breathes well. Zeolite granules are taken from cat litter, after having thoroughly washed them from salts and dust in running water. They are small pebbles and zeolite crumbs, retain water, and are used in growing bonsai-style plants and ordinary indoor flowers.

Zeolite chips and vermiculite help well when planting rooted cuttings. The fact is that cuttings rooted in water form roots that are different from the roots formed in the ground. They are completely covered with moisture-trapping hairs, literally white and fluffy in appearance. Sometimes, when planting such cuttings in the ground, they freeze in growth and even die. This may be due to either excessive watering of the cuttings (the ground sours, the roots rot) or, conversely, overdrying (when the hairs on the roots instantly dry out). In order for the stalk to adapt to a change in habitat, when transplanting into a pot, a hole is made in the ground, the roots of the stalk are placed and vermiculite or zeolite chips are poured. They maintain a moist environment around the roots, but do not stick together and prevent the roots from rotting. Gradually the cutting grows and grows new roots already in the ground.

Popular by topic