Cattleya Species

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Cattleya Species
Cattleya Species
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cattleya
cattleya

Orchid family. Homeland South and Central America, Antilles. Probably the most famous genus of orchids. Cattleya are epiphytic plants with a pronounced aboveground rhizome. In nature, there are about 70 species, and various hybrids obtained by biologists from interspecies crossing, as well as crossing with orchids of another genus, number in the thousands. There are two types of Cattleya. Representatives of the first group have elongated fleshy fusiform, sometimes flattened bulbs with one apical leathery leaf. The peduncle emerges from the cover at the top of the new growth and bears several large fragrant flowers. Their predominant color is from pink-violet to white. There are often yellow spots on the lip.

The second group is represented by plants with long (in some species up to 1 m) cylindrical bulbs bearing two or more leathery elliptical leaves. The peduncle is apical, with several medium-sized flowers. The flowers are more varied in color than those of the first group and often have a denser texture. Many Cattleya plants are quite plastic plants, so when caring for them, you do not need to strive to accurately recreate the natural environment. It is important that not individual parameters, but their combinations are optimal. For example, having created a certain temperature regime, you cannot arbitrarily choose the illumination, humidity. So, if the content of plants is too warm in winter in low light conditions, their depletion will occur - respiration will prevail over photosynthesis. Excessive watering combined with low temperatures can lead to root death.

What Cattleyas dream about

Characteristics of some natural species of Cattleya and their habitat:

Cattleya aclandiae

Quite far from the coast at low altitudes, in solitary trees near rivers. The rainy season is from November to March.

Bulba up to 10 cm long, leaves up to 10 cm, peduncle with 1 - 2 flowers. Flowers. diameter 10 cm, yellow-green with red-brown spots, white-pink lip

Cattleya amethy stogeossa

Quite far from the coast at low altitudes, in solitary trees near rivers. Rainy season - November to March

Bulba 30-40 cm long, leaves 10-20 cm, peduncle with 10-15 flowers. Flowers 5-8 cm in diameter, light pink with dark dots

Cattleya aurantiaca

Mountain forests, at an altitude of 500-1600 m on trees and stones covered with a thin layer of moss

Bulba up to 45 cm long, leaves up to 15 cm, peduncle with 10-20 flowers. Flowers 3 cm in diameter, orange

Cattleya bowringiana

Mainly on rocks in ravines along streams, in a constantly humid atmosphere

Bulba 40-60 cm long, leaves 15-20 cm, peduncle with 10-20 flowers. Flowers 5-7 cm in diameter, red-purple

Cattleya bicolor

Mountain forest, at an altitude of about 1000 m, in cool, humid conditions. No dry season

Bulba 30-60 cm long, leaves 15-20 cm, peduncle with 1-4 flowers. Flowers about 10 cm in diameter, brown-green, purple lip

Cattleya dormaniana

On the hills at the foot of the Organ Mountains. In a mountain forest at an altitude of 500-1000 m, almost always on stones or decayed trees

Bulba about 25 cm long, leaves - 10-15 cm, peduncle with 1-5 flowers. Flowers 6-9 cm in diameter, olive brown, purple lip

Cattleya dowiana

Rainforest rainforest, high on large trees

Bulba up to 30 cm long, leaves up to 25 cm, peduncle with 2-5 flowers. Flowers 15-20 cm in diameter, light yellow, red-purple lip

Cattleya forbesii

In various conditions (coastal rainforests, bush, dunes, coastal swamps), on trees and rocks

Bulba 10-20 cm long, leaves up to 15 cm, peduncle with 1-6 flowers. Flowers with a diameter of 10 cm, yellow-green

Cattleya guttata

In various conditions (coastal rainforests, bush, dunes, coastal swamps), on trees and rocks

Bulba 30-50 cm long, leaves 10-25 cm, peduncle with 5-30 flowers. Flowers with a diameter of 8-10 cm, yellow-green with red dots, white-pink lip

Cattleya harrisoniana

In various conditions (coastal rainforests, bush, dunes, coastal swamps), on trees and rocks

Bulba 20-30 cm long, leaves 12-15 cm, peduncle with 3-5 flowers. Flowers 10 cm in diameter, pink-purple

Cattleya intermedia

In various conditions (coastal rainforests, bush, dunes, coastal swamps), on trees and rocks

Bulba 20-30 cm long, leaves 15 cm, peduncle with 3-7 flowers. Flowers up to 12 cm in diameter, pink-purple

Cattleya leopoldii

Coastal forests, in the trees

Bulba 30-50 cm long, leaves 15-20 cm, peduncle with 10-20 flowers Flowers 6-10 cm in diameter, yellow-olive with purple dots, white-pink lip

Cattleya labiata

Mountain forests, at an altitude of 700-1700 m

Bulba 15-25 cm long, leaves up to 25 cm, peduncle with 2-5 flowers. Flowers 15-18 cm in diameter, pink

Cattleya luteola

Rainy tropical and mountain forests, at an altitude of 100-1200 m, high in the trees

Bulba 10 cm long, leaves 10-12 cm, peduncle with 3-15 flowers. Flowers 10-12 cm in diameter, yellow

Cattleya loddigesii

Swampy forests at low altitudes, along river banks, at a distance of 100-150 km from the coast

Pseudobulb 20-40 cm long, leaves 15-20 cm, peduncles with 2-6 flowers. Flowers about 10 cm in diameter, pink

Cattleya maxima

In forests with dry winters, over streams on rocks and trees. Permanent night fogs

Pseudobulb 10-30 cm long, leaves 25 cm, peduncles with 3-15 flowers. Flowers up to 12 cm in diameter, pink

Cattleya nobilior

In the forests along the upper ridges of the gorges at low altitudes. Pronounced dry season (5 months without precipitation), abundant dew from June to November. Plants are highly dehydrated by the time of flowering

Pseudobulb 10-15 cm long, leaves 10-15 cm, peduncles with 1-2 flowers. Flowers up to 10 cm in diameter, pink-purple

Cattleya prinzii

Coastal swamps, trees. Warm and humid all year round

Pseudobulb 20-30 cm long, leaves 15-20 cm long, peduncles with 2-5 flowers. Flowers 10 cm in diameter, yellow-pink-purple

Cattleya percivaliana

Mountain forest, at an altitude of 1000-1300 m

Pseudobulb 15-25 cm long, leaves up to 25 cm, peduncles with 2-5 flowers. Flowers about 10 cm in diameter, pink-purple

Cattleya rex

Upper Amazon rainforest, high in the trees

Pseudobulb 15-25 cm long, leaves up to 25 cm, peduncles with 2-4 flowers. Flowers 15-18 cm in diameter, creamy white, red-brown

Cattleya skinneri

Deciduous forests (dry season in November - April) at an altitude of 1500 m on trees and stones, granite talus. Also in mountain forests and cool conditions without a dry season on tall trees

Pseudobulb 20-45 cm long, leaves 15-20 cm, peduncles with 4-12 flowers. Flowers about 7 cm in diameter, pink

Cattleya schilleriana

Forest on rocky hills, at an altitude of less than 400 m, exclusively in trees. Hot and dry - January to March

Pseudobulb 10-12 cm long, leaves 10 cm, peduncles with 1-2 flowers. Flowers about 10 cm in diameter, brown-red-olive

Cattleya trianaei

Mountain forest, at an altitude of about 1000 m

Pseudobulb 15-25 cm long, leaves - 20-25 cm, peduncles with 2-5 flowers. Flowers 15-20 cm in diameter, pink-purple

Cattleya velutina

Mountain forest, at an altitude of about 1000 m, in cool, humid conditions. No dry season

Pseudobulb 30-60 cm long, leaves 15-20 cm, peduncles with 4-7 flowers. Flowers up to 12 cm in diameter, brown-orange-white

Cattleya violacea

Found in rainforest, more commonly on trees along streams

Pseudobulb up to 25 cm long, leaves - 10-12 cm, peduncles with 3-7 flowers. Flowers 10-12 cm in diameter, pink-purple

Cattleya walkeriana

In mountain forests at low altitude on trees and stones along streams

Pseudobulb 10-12 cm long, leaves 10-12 cm, peduncles with 1-2 flowers. Flowers up to 10 cm in diameter, pink-purple

Characteristics of the Cattleya habitats

Rainy rainforests - distributed mainly in the equatorial zone - in Central and South America (basins of the Amazon, Orinoco, etc.), Africa (basins of the Congo, Niger, Zambezi rivers). They are also found on the island of Madagascar, in India, in the Malay archipelago, in Indonesia, in New Guinea and other islands of Oceania.

Dry periods in rainforest rainforests are very weak. Daily temperature fluctuations reach their maximum values ​​and are usually 2-3 ° C higher than during the rainy period. The highest temperatures are observed during the rainy season. Air humidity is 100% during the day, at least 55-65% at night. For epiphytic plants originating from a tropical rain forest, it is necessary: ​​high air humidity at a uniform temperature throughout the year and relatively low illumination; daily fluctuations in temperature and humidity.

Seasonal rainforests are characterized by one or two dry seasons throughout the year. These partially or completely deciduous forests are common on the Pacific coast of Central America, Venezuela, eastern Brazil and Paraguay, the western coast of India, Bengal and many parts of Southeast Asia. From the variety of seasonal rainforests, two main fundamentally different types are distinguished: Dense evergreen forest - slightly drier than rainforest. With daily temperature fluctuations of 5-10 ° C. Air humidity is 90% during the day, at least 70% at night.

Deciduous (savanna) forest - with sparsely located groups of large trees shedding their leaves during the dry season. With daily temperature fluctuations of 5-15 ° C. Humidity is 90% during the day, at least 65% at night.

For epiphytic plants originating from seasonal rainforests, a long dormant period is required, which in some plants can last 4-6 months.

Mountain rainforests are about 800 m above sea level and above. Mountain rainforests are characterized by a noticeable change in climatic conditions depending on the height above sea level. With an increase in height, a decrease in the size of trees is observed and their species diversity decreases. The amount of precipitation first increases with height and then decreases, while the maximum amount of precipitation falls on the middle part of the upland - it is about 1500 m.

The temperature drops with increasing altitude (vertical temperature gradient from 0.4 to 0.7 ° C per 100 m). Daily temperature fluctuations are usually large, and seasonal ones are rather weak. As the height above sea level increases, humidity increases due to cloudiness, but at the same time, illumination decreases. The peculiarity of the mountain rain forest is the constant intensive movement of moist air, a noticeable decrease in night temperatures with a simultaneous increase in relative humidity; plentiful dew and frequent fogs at night.

When writing the article, the materials of the book "Rare indoor plants", S.O. Gerasimov, I.M. Zhuravlev, A.A. Seryapin, Rosagropromizdat, 1990.

Cattleya, care and maintenance

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