Orchids - You Need To Know

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Orchids - You Need To Know
Orchids - You Need To Know
Video: Orchids - You Need To Know
Video: All you need to know about Orchids (Phalaenopsis hybrid) 2023, February
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orchid flower
orchid flower

Orchids, orchids, order Orchidales and the only Orchidaceae family of monocotyledonous perennial herbaceous plants.

Terrestrial (with rhizomes or underground tubers) or epiphytes. The leaves are whole, in saprophytic species they are reduced to scales. Orchid flowers are irregular - zygomorphic, in spike-racemose inflorescences sometimes up to 2–3 m long, rarely solitary, highly and variedly specialized for pollination by insects. The perianth is bright, fragrant, oddly shaped, double, with nectaries and outgrowths.

The lower petal, the so-called lip, of a complex structure, usually protrudes from the flower, forming a "landing site" for insects, and in some species the lip has the shape of a jug. A single orchid stamen grows together with the column and stigma into a column (gynostemia). Pollen grains are combined into lumps - pollinia. One of the blades of a three-lobed stigma is often transformed into a "beak" that secretes sticky substances. Gynoecium (a group of pistils in a flower) is paracarpous or secondary syncarpous - i.e. a single pistil, with accrete walls of carpels (walls of carpels are either preserved or absent). Lower ovary. When the insect gets the hidden nectar of the subline, it sticks to its body with a sticky sticky stick. When insects visit the next flower of pollinia, thanks to a complex mechanism, it falls on the stigma. Self-pollination is also possible in many orchids.From pollination to maturation of seeds and fruits in orchids takes up to two or more years. The embryo is not differentiated. Sepals (petals) of orchids also have their own names - two lateral - petals, upper and two lateral lower sepals - sepals.

Seeds germinate only when they enter the fungi that form endotrophic mycorrhiza (mainly Rhizoctonia species). The orchid family includes about 800 genera, and 35 thousand species are the largest family of monocotyledonous plants. Distributed almost everywhere, except for the polar regions and deserts, the most abundant and diverse in the tropics and subtropics of America and South Asia. In temperate and cold areas, mostly terrestrial orchids grow. In Russia, there are about 150 species of them (slipper, ophys, orchis, etc.) Orchids were introduced into the culture more than 1000 years ago, in China. And at the beginning of the 20th century, a method was developed for growing orchids in greenhouses from seeds infected with a fungus.

Orchid Glossary

Pseudo-pain
Pseudo-pain

Bracts are strongly modified leaves of inflorescences (bracts).

Bulba (pseudobulba) is a thickened part of the stem in sympodial orchids. They act as a reservoir of nutrients and water in case of prolonged drought, which is typical for plants leading an epiphytic lifestyle. Bulbs have various shapes, depending on the type of orchid - cylindrical, cone-shaped, club-shaped or spherical. Each bulb has one or two leaves. But since the reserves of nutrients are in the bulbs, the leaves of such orchids are usually thin and narrow, gradually dying off. Monopodial orchids do not have bulbs and their reserves of nutrients and water are deposited in juicy fleshy leaves.

Vegetative shoots are shoots without generative organs, consisting of an axis, leaves and buds. They can be apical and lateral, shortened and elongated. Elongated vegetative shoots are often called growth shoots. Vegetative shoots differ from generative shoots in terms of growth and length.

Velamen is a hygroscopic tissue of a spongy structure, consisting of dead cells filled with air. Velamen covers the roots of epiphytic orchids and is designed to absorb water from the air and precipitation. Velamen is characteristic only for orchids growing on drying up substrates.

A generative shoot is a shoot bearing single flowers or inflorescences. A generative shoot develops from a generative bud that has flower or inflorescence rudiments.

Hybrid - from lat. hibrida, hybrida - a cross, an organism (cell), obtained as a result of combining the genetic material of genotypically different organisms (cells), i.e. hybridization. In natural populations of cross-pollinated plants, almost every individual is heterozygous for many genes, i.e., it is a hybrid, which is necessary to maintain a certain level of genotypic variability in the population. Distant hybrids (of different taxa - species, genera, families) are quite rare in nature and, as a rule, are sterile. This suggests that natural selection inhibits both their formation and their survival. However, the appearance of some plant species was associated with the formation of distant hybrids.

Lip - one of the tepals, differs from the rest of the tepals in shape and / or color and size.

Bilamellar orchids - in which the flower has two fertile stamens (in the anthers of which pollen grains are formed). There is a third stamen, but it is modified, underdeveloped, does not have an anther, it is called staminode. Orchids of the genus Papiopedilum belong to the two-stalk ones.

The baby is a new young plant, formed on the maternal vegetative way.

Column - an organ formed by the accretion of stamens (one or two) with a column and stigma of the pistil, is characteristic only of orchids.

Rhizome or Rhizome - rhizome - underground, more or less durable shoot of perennial herbaceous plants, as well as shrubs, serving for the deposition of reserve substances, vegetative renewal and reproduction. It differs from the root by the presence of scaly leaves, scars from fallen leaves (sometimes their dry remains), buds and adventitious roots, and the absence of a root cap. The rhizome (rhizome) grows annually and forms aerial shoots from the apical or axillary buds. Rhizomes often form branched systems. The old parts of the rhizome are gradually destroyed. Long rhizomes with significant annual increments and well-defined internodes serve mainly for vegetative reproduction and dispersal,short rhizomes with small annual increments and close knots - mainly for storage and vegetative renewal.

Orchid rhizome
Orchid rhizome

Meristem - from the Greek. meristos - divisible, - the educational tissue of plants that retains the ability to divide and create new cells for a long time; has a high metabolic activity. Some cells of the meristem are initial, they are delayed at the embryonic phase of development and, dividing, provide a continuous increase in plant mass; other cells of the meristem gradually differentiate, forming various permanent tissues (integumentary, conducting, mechanical, basic, etc.). The meristem carries all the genetic information of a plant; any organ and a whole plant can be formed from it.

The apical meristems - the cones of growth of the shoot and root - are laid in the embryo very early. The formation of cotyledons and the initiation of leaf primordia on the growth cone of the shoot causes the differentiation of lateral meristems into procambium and cambium. In the process of plant growth, the meristem is partially retained in its roots, in the shoot nodes, buds, internodes of the stem, etc. With the help of the meristem, orchids are grown in test tubes on an industrial scale ("culture of meristems"). Those. if you cut off a microscopic piece of the meristem and place it in vitro on a nutrient medium, under sterile conditions, you can grow a new orchid. It is believed that the meristem is sterile, and the thinner its layer is cut (under a microscope), the more likely it will be sterile.

Mycorrhiza - from myco … and Greek. rhiza - root, - fungus root, symbiosis of the mycelium of the fungus and the roots of a higher plant. Distinguish ectotrophic mycorrhiza, in which the fungus braids the root, remaining on its surface, and endotrophic, when the fungus penetrates into the root (mycorrhiza of microscopic fungi from the class imperfect with plants of the family of orchids and heathers). The hyphae of the fungus in the cells are tree-like branching or form capitate swellings. Mycorrhiza is considered either as a mutualistic symbiosis from which both the fungus and the plant benefit, or as a limited parasitism. Mycorrhizal fungi probably decompose some organic soil compounds inaccessible to plants, promote the assimilation of phosphates, nitrogen compounds, produce substances such as vitamins and growth activators, and themselves use substances (possibly carbohydrates),the plants they extract from the root. The seeds of some plants (orchids) can only germinate in the presence of a fungus.

Mycotrophic plants - from myco … and … troph, are plants that have mycorrhiza on the roots and extract nutrients from the soil with the help of fungal hyphae symbiotically associated with the roots. Mycotrophic plants - all gymnosperms, the majority of monocotyledons (75%) and dicotyledons (80-90%) For each type of mycotrophic plant, the form of mycorrhiza and the degree of its development depend on age, ecological conditions, etc.

peloric flower
peloric flower

A monopodial orchid has a main axis formed by a single shoot with unlimited apical growth.

Single-stamen orchids - only one fertile stamen is preserved in their flower (in the anthers of which pollen grains are formed).

Pollinium - the formation of pollen grains, glued together with the help of a substance - viscin, become as if waxy. When pollinia germinates on the stigma, it forms a large number of pollen tubes, which increases the chances of fertilization. Pollinium can be filiform, round, pear-shaped, angular and club-shaped. In the process of pollination, pollinas are transferred from one flower to another.

Peloric flower - from the Greek. pelorios - monstrous - a flower with a regular (actinomorphic) corolla, unlike other flowers of the same plant, which have irregular (zygomorphic) corollas. A peloric flower develops at the top of the inflorescence. It is possible that the formation of a peloric flower depends on the uniform action of gravity on the corolla due to its apical, and not lateral, position, as in other flowers.

It is generally accepted that an actinomorphic flower is the initial state of a trait, a zygomorphic one is a derivative. This phenomenon in orchids is developmental disorders, both inherited (mutations) and non-inherited, which lead to the development of actinomorphic flowers in plants in which they are normally zygomorphic.

Pollinarium - from lat. pollen, genus. case of pollinis - fine flour, pollen, a special formation adapted for the transfer of large masses of pollen by insects or birds on the stigma of a flower. It consists of a pollinium, a leg and a stick (pads), with which the pollinar is glued to the pollinator.

Pollinia - from lat. pollen, genus. case of pollinis - fine flour, pollen, - pollen grains of one half of the anther (theca), glued together into a common mass with a special substance - viscin; part of pollinarium. When pollinia germinates on the stigma, it forms a large number of pollen tubes, which is a device for reliable fertilization. Pollinias are characteristic of the Grimaceae and Orchid families.

Sympodial orchids - in which the main axis is a system of shoots with limited apical growth, formed from the lateral buds of shoots of the previous order.

Turgor is a natural tension of plant cells. A plant can live only with a water balance, i.e. when the amount of water entering the plant is not less than it is consumed. When more water is consumed (with intensive evaporation), then the cells are dehydrated. In this case, the tension of the plant cells is weakened, this is called the loss of turgor. At the same time, the leaves and tops of the shoots droop and wither. If the plant is not watered on time, the process can become irreversible.

Loss of turgor can be caused not only by a lack of watering, but also by watering and spraying with highly concentrated solutions of mineral fertilizers.

Epiphytes are plants that have no connection with the soil: they are fixed on the trunks and branches of trees or other plants. They use moisture and minerals from precipitation. As a rule, they have an open root system, sometimes they do not have roots.

Orchid classification

  • Genus Anectochilus (Anoectochilus)
  • Genus Anzelia (Ansellia)
  • Rod Auliza
  • Genus Bletia (Bletia)
  • Rod Brassavola (Brassavola)
  • Genus Bulbophyllum (Bulbophyllum)
  • Genus Gemaria (Haemaria)
  • Genus Grammatophyllum (Grammatophyllum)
  • Rod Goodyera
  • Genus Dendrobium (Dendrobium)
  • Genus Zygopetalum (Zygopetalum)
  • Genus Catasetum (Catasetum)
  • Rod Kalanthe (Calanthe)
  • Genus Cattleya (Cattleya)
  • Rod Lelia (Laelia)
  • Genus Leptotes
  • The genus Lycaste
  • Rod Makodes (Macodes)
  • Genus Maxillaria (Maxillaria)
  • Rod Mormodes
  • Genus Paphiopedilum (Paphiopedilum)
  • Rod Pleione (Pleione)
  • Genus Sophronitis
  • Rod Stangopea (Stanhopea)
  • Rod Fayus (Phaius)
  • Genus Folidota (Pholidota)
  • Genus Fragmipedium (Phragmipedium)
  • Rod Chysis
  • Genus Hormidium (Hormidium)
  • The family of Coelogyne
  • Rod Cycnoches
  • Genus Cymbidium (Cymbidium)
  • Genus Cirrhopetalum (Cirrhopetalum)
  • Genus Encyclia
  • Genus Epidendrum (Epidendrum)
  • Group Bletinae (Bletinae) - includes childbirth: bletia, kalanta, hizis, fayus
  • Group Dendrobium (Dendrobiinae) - includes childbirth: bulbophyllum, cirropetalum, dendrobium
  • Group Catasetum (Catasetinae) - includes childbirth: catazetum, cycnoches, mormodes
  • Group Maxillariidae (Maxillariinae) - includes genera: lycast, maxillaria and zygopetalum
  • Group Spirant (Spiranthinae) - includes childbirth: hemaria, makodes, anectochilus, goodayera
  • Group Coelogyninae - includes childbirth: cellogyne, playone, dendrochilum, folidota
  • Group Cypripedieae (Cypripedieae) - includes childbirth: pafiopedilums and phragmipedia
  • Cymbidium group (Cymbididiinae) - includes genera: Anzelia, Cymbidium, Grammatophyllum
  • Group Epidendrinae (Epidendrinae) - includes childbirth: brassavola, cattleya, epidendrum, lelia, leptotes, sofronitis

Common abbreviations for the names of orchid species and their hybrids

  • Aer. - Aerides Aeridis
  • Aerctm. - Aeridocentrum Aeridocentrum
  • Aerdv. - Aeridovanda Aeridovanda
  • Angcm. - Angraecum Angrekum
  • Arnps. - Arachnopsis Arachnopsis
  • Arnth. - Aranthera Arantera
  • Ascda. - Ascocenda Ascocenda
  • Ascps. - Asconopsis Asconopsis
  • Asctm. - Ascocentrum Ascocentrum
  • B. - Brassavola Brassavola
  • Bc. - Brassocattleya Brassocattleya
  • Bepi. - Brassoepidendrum Brassoepidendrum
  • Bkch. - Bokchoonara Bocchonara
  • Bl. - Brassolaelia Brassolaelia
  • Blc. - Brassolaeliocattleya Brassolaeliocattleya
  • Bro. - Broughtonia Broughtonia
  • Brs. - Brassia Brassia
  • C. - Cattleya Cattleya
  • Chtra. - Christieara Christieara
  • Colm. - Colmanara Colmanara
  • Ctna. - Cattleytonia Cattleitonia
  • Den. - Dendrobium Dendrobium
  • Dor. - Doritis Doritis
  • Dtps. - Doritaenopsis Doritaenopsis
  • Enc. - Encyclia Encyclia
  • Epc. - Epicattleya Epicattleya
  • Epi. - Epidendrum Epidendrum
  • Eplc. - Epilaeliocattleya Epilaeliocattleya
  • Gram. - Grammatophyllum Grammatophyllum
  • Hknsa. - Hawkinsara Hawkinsara
  • Kgw. - Kagawara Kagawara
  • L. - Laelia Laelia
  • Lc. - Laeliocattleya Laeliocattleya
  • Lpna. - Lioponia Lyoponia
  • Lwsra. - Lewisara Levisara
  • Mkra. - Mokara Mokara
  • Nak. - Nakamotoara Nakamotoara
  • Neof. - Neofinetia Neofinetia
  • Neost. - Neostylis Neostylis
  • Odbrs. - Odontobrassia Odontobrassia
  • Odm. - Odontoglossum Odontoglossum
  • Odtna. - Odontonia Odontia
  • Onc. - Oncidium Oncidium
  • Phal. - Phalaenopsis Phalaenopsis
  • Prra. - Perreiraara Perrierara
  • Rdza. - Rodriquezia Rodriguezia
  • Ren. - Renanthera Renantera
  • Rhrds. - Rhynchorides Rinchorides
  • Rhv. - Rhynchovanda Rinhovanda
  • Rhy. - Rhynchostylis Rhynchostylis
  • Rlla. - Rumrillara Rumrillara
  • Rntda. - Renantanda Renantada
  • Sc. - Sophrocattleya Sophrocattleya
  • Slc. - Sophrolaeliocattleya Sofrolaeliocattleya
  • Soph. - Sophronitis Sophronitis
  • V. - Vanda Wanda
  • Vasco. - Vascostylis Vascostilis
  • Vf. - Vandofinetia Vanofinetia
  • Ysfra. - Yusofara Yusofar
  • Orchid growing conditions
  • Transplant and soil for orchids
  • Reproduction of orchids
  • Orchid pests and other growing problems
  • Precious orchids

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