Reproduction Of Orchids

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Reproduction Of Orchids
Reproduction Of Orchids
Video: Reproduction Of Orchids
Video: How to Make 100 Orchids From One Without Keiki Paste 2023, February
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Phalaenopsis babies
Phalaenopsis babies

Education of children on phalaenopsis

Orchids are propagated by cuttings, children, dividing the bush, seeds and bulbs. Rare orchids - precious ones reproduce by cuttings: Ludisia and Makodes, and their hybrids, well, Vanilla Vanilla planifolia. The rest of the orchids are children, division or seeds.

Reproduction of orchids by division

When propagating by division, you can separate the bush into parts with roots. At the same time, it is advisable to leave three shoots on each part, so that the plants would be viable. Places of cuts are sprinkled with crushed coal.

You can separate the old bulb from faded orchids (for example, epidendrum). Old bulbs that have lost their leaves are removed and placed over a humid environment for rooting. You can pour water into a bowl, put a grate over it, a bulb on it, so that it does not touch the water, but high humidity is created around it. The temperature must be at least 20 ° C. After a while, new plants appear on their own roots from the buds at the base of the old bulb. When they have grown enough (1-1.5 cm), they can be planted in pots.

For rooting of pseudobulbs, all kinds of greenhouses are used to maintain high humidity. Everything is used - any transparent containers, cake boxes, disposable dishes, five to six liter water bottles, small aquariums, pot-bellied bowls, etc.

baby dendrobium
baby dendrobium

Dendrobium is planted in a mixture of sphagnum bark and moss, with the addition of pieces of foam and peat.

Reproduction of orchids by cuttings

For propagation by cuttings, old, elongated stems, lateral shoots or faded flower stems are taken. Cuttings are taken about 10-15 cm long.

The cut stalk is not stuck into the ground, as in other indoor plants, but is laid flat on the surface of the soil (sand or moss) and placed in a greenhouse, preferably heated. Orchids can be propagated not by cutting off cuttings, but by layering the stem in a neighboring pot, cutting it off from the mother plant after rooting.

Rooting method: a 1.5 liter transparent bottle is cut into two parts (bottom and top). Put wet moss in the lower one, cut a circle out of the sink grate on it, insert it so that it is located just above the moss. We put an orchid stalk on it - something that should take root. We close the top from the top of the bottle, while the bottle cap must always be unscrewed, so air enters the greenhouse. The stalk should not touch the moss so that there is no rotting, and the humidity inside the bottle is high (about 80%).

Young orchids obtained by propagation from a cuttings, or by dividing a bush, or in another way? watered very carefully, it is even better to use spraying instead of watering, until good strong roots are formed. The biofungicide Fitosporin-M can be added to the water for irrigation, or the Alirin B tablet can be put in a pot with a substrate. But phytosporin-M is better.

Orchid seeds

Orchids easily interbreed during cross-pollination within not only one species, but also between separate genera. Therefore, the seed propagation method is more often used to obtain new varieties of orchids.

Theoretically, there is nothing difficult in the propagation of orchids by seeds, but there is one condition that is rather difficult to reproduce at home - the sterility of the environment. Here it is not enough to sterilize the soil in the oven and pickle the seeds with potassium permanganate, as with any other indoor plants, sterility is needed in everything - from the beginning of the process - disinfecting the tool, soil, seeds, to complete sealing of seeds in vitro. Those. just like we roll blanks for the winter, you need to place the seeds in a sterile environment.

orchid seeds
orchid seeds

Orchid seeds are dusty, to be precise, they are about 0.25-1.5 mm long and 0.27-0.9 mm wide, and in one fruit there are hundreds of thousands of seeds. Orchid seeds ripen in different ways, for example, for phalaenopsis it takes from 4 to 6 months. When the ripe fruit cracks and the seeds fly out of it, such small sizes contribute to the easy transfer of seeds with air currents, they fall into the smallest cracks in the bark of trees and develop safely at a height of several meters from the ground.

But everything in orchids is not like in ordinary plants: seed germination occurs with the constant participation of symbiotic fungi (certain species). The most famous research in the world of science belongs to the French botanist Noel Bernard. He told the world that orchid seeds are not just small in size, they have practically no nutrients necessary for growth and development. For orchids, symbiotic mushrooms produce these nutrients.

Under favorable conditions, seed infection or infection occurs. Not by disputes - no, this phenomenon is called rhizoctonia - this is a sterile form of mycelium - the thinnest filaments of the fungus penetrate into the seed and grow inside the embryo cell, forming small glomeruli. Moreover, the growth of these glomeruli should not be invasive, i.e. in a strong healthy seed, fungi cannot prevent its growth, since the cell sap has a fungicidal effect and inhibits the development of the fungus more than is necessary for the future orchid itself.

T. about. the mushrooms provide the plant with the necessary nutrition, and the seed develops and germinates. This phenomenon of symbiotic association of the mycelium of the fungus with the roots of higher plants (inherent not only in orchids, but also in many other plants) is called mycorrhiza.

After penetration into the seed and the development of hyphae of the mycorrhizal fungus, a seedling appears, in orchids it is called Protocorm - this is a formation consisting of identical parenchymal cells. It is assumed that already at the protocorm stage it is possible to determine, if not the species, then at least the generic orchid. In most epiphytes, the protocorm is rounded, in terrestrial ones it is somewhat elongated.

At this stage, it must be remembered that an orchid grows from one fruit that has erupted hundreds and even millions of microscopic seeds. Most of the seeds simply die. The fact is that an attempt at symbiosis is not always a happy end, and fungi that infect and are able to feed orchid seeds are far from being as harmless as it might seem. If the seeds do not produce some fungicidal substances or produce them in insufficient quantities, the mushroom rhizoctonia simply destroy them. Thus, in natural conditions, only a few of orchid seeds survive.

If you try to grow orchids at home as well as in natural conditions - just sow, then the chances of survival are small. But biologists have found that if orchid seeds are sown in a sterile environment, where there is no hint of mushroom rhizoctony, but nutrients are provided, then many orchid species germinate in huge quantities. And although an orchid seedling grows long enough, fully develops in about 180-200 days, and only at the age of 300 days (usually longer than 400-500 days, depending on the species) is it ready for transplantation into a substrate, this discovery made it possible to deploy large-scale cultivation of orchids in test tube.

By the way, by the name of Professor Lewis Knudson, the solution was named "Knudson's nutrient medium".

Wednesday Knudson

for 1 liter of distilled water:

  • Ca (NO3) 2 * 4H2O - 1.0 g
  • KH2PO4 - 0.25 g
  • MgSO4 * 7H2O - 0.25 g
  • FeSO4 * 7H2O - 0.025 g
  • (NH4) 2SO4 - 0.5 g
  • MnSO4 * 4H2O - 0.0075 g
  • Sucrose - 20.0 g
  • Agar-agar - 7.0 g

The ingredients are listed in the order they are added to the water. In order for the agar-agar to dissolve, it is necessary to bring the solution to a boil, stirring constantly. Plus, a vegetable component is added to the resulting solution - fruit or berry puree, about 8 g, better banana, you can papaya, tomato pulp. Fruit slices are crushed and rubbed through a sieve.

However, the concept of a nutrient medium was not limited, so to speak, to the classics. Inventive flower growers have come up with a lot of nutrient solutions, here's an example:

Nutrient solution for sowing orchids

for 1 liter of distilled water:

  • 1.5 g fertilizer for orchids (equal to NPK 20-20-20)
  • 30 g sugar
  • 1 g of activated carbon, crushed in a mortar,
  • 5 drops of epin (or naphthaleneacetic acid)
  • 8 g agar agar
orchid seeds
orchid seeds

Agar-agar - acts as a thickener, i.e. so that the seeds do not float in the solution, but lie on the surface. It cannot be replaced with gelatin - it does not tolerate sterilization, at high temperatures it loses its properties to solidify into jelly. Therefore, no worthy alternative to agar-agar has yet been invented.

Fruit juice or fruit puree is often added to the nutrient solution. If fertilizer for orchids contains only minerals and salts, then the fruit component is needed as a source of auxins, gibberilins, kinetin (plant growth substances), as well as vitamins and other biologically active substances necessary for the full development of seedlings. By the way, cytokinins, including kinetin, are a class of plant hormones of the 6-aminopurine series that stimulate cell division; for the first time, they were found in decent amounts in coconut milk.

Therefore, in foreign recipes for culture media for sowing orchids, you can often find the addition of coconut milk instead of fruit puree. Those. you just take a coconut, punch a hole in it, and drain the liquid. For 1 liter of nutrient medium, you need 100 g of coconut water and 900 mg of distilled water, then all the other components on the list. It has been noticed that seedlings develop better on coconut water (although the data are rather subjective).

Orchids need sugar for the reason that, as we remember, they have very little of their own nutrients, and simple carbohydrates are needed for the development of seedlings, so sugar is indispensable.

Activated carbon was not previously added to the sowing medium, but it was noticed that it restrains pollution - from a mixture of fruit purees, particles of the seed coat, if it gets with the seeds, and after 3-4 weeks of germination, the growth of seedlings slows down. When coal is added, this does not happen, which makes it possible to do without unnecessary transplanting of seedlings into a new sterile environment. Those. if there is enough space (a little seeds are sown in one jar), then with activated carbon the seedlings can grow well for 4-5 months, or even do without transplants before sowing from a sterile environment to a regular one.

Sterilizing the seed solution

Prepare a solution, pour it into jars in which orchids will be grown. The jars are small, pot-bellied better, well washed. In each 40 - 50 ml of solution, or about 2 cm in height.

Arrange the jars on a baking sheet, close hermetically with rinsed lids and place in the oven for 20 minutes at 150 degrees. Then turn off the oven, do not remove the jars until they have cooled down. After cooling, the nutrient solution thickens. Some orchid growers believe that this treatment is not enough to kill the bacteria, and sterilize the jars of the medium in a pressure cooker, also for about 20 minutes, after it boils. After that, drain the steam and remove the cans.

You don't need to sterilize the tool in an oven or pressure cooker - it doesn't make sense, it will lose sterility when you take it out.

It should be noted here that you can test any sterilization method without sowing seeds - leave the jars empty to stand at room temperature for 1-2 weeks. If sterility is not achieved, mold will form in them.

The culture medium prepared in this way is sterile and can be stored for several months in a dark, cool place. Those. until sowing is ready.

Sowing orchid seeds and sterilization

orchid seeds
orchid seeds

Sowing requires a clean table, tools, an ultraviolet lamp, prepared jars of medium.

Tools: scalpel, candle or alcohol burner, can opener (it is difficult to open sealed cans), gauze napkins, 70% alcohol, the more the better, glass bowls or cups (small tray) for the fruit, soaking seeds, tweezers.

All manipulations must be carried out in a room where the windows are closed (there should be no drafts and pets) and indoor flowers, therefore it is more convenient in the kitchen.

There is nothing superfluous on the table, only prepared cans and tools. The lamp can be placed side by side directly on the table or above the table, for example by attaching it to a table lamp.

We turn on the lamp and leave it for 1.5-2 hours. Ultraviolet irradiation does not sterilize the entire room, but a small area around the table, but it does kill more bacteria in the room. At the same time, if you open the door when you enter the kitchen, fresh microbes are naturally brought in with the air currents. Therefore, it is advisable to carry out all crops as quickly as possible and without unnecessary gestures and jumps behind a forgotten tool.

So, we wipe our hands with alcohol. All trays, tweezers, scalpel, can lids - we wipe everything with alcohol. If there is a lot of alcohol, it is better to pour it into a spray bottle and periodically spray the surfaces, or wipe it with a napkin in alcohol, almost every action - put the tool down, take it - wipe it. Spray the table or wipe it with alcohol.

We take the fruit and soak it for 10 minutes in alcohol (you can use 10% chloramine). We take out the fruit with tweezers, make an incision on it with a scalpel, the incision is not deep, so that the fruit does not crack and does not open right in the hands. We put it in a glass bowl.

We turn on the alcohol burner, for about 20-30 seconds we hold the lid of the jar with the nutrient medium over it. Evenly, along the entire perimeter of the lid, from above and from the sides.

We put the jar, open the lid. We do not put the lid on the table, just open it slightly, hold it in one hand above the jar (no higher than 2 cm). With the second hand we take the fruit, bring it over the jar and, slightly squeezing with the middle and thumb, tap the fruit with the index finger. The fruit is returned to the bowl, the jar is immediately closed. We take the next can, etc.

This method does not require sterilization of the seeds themselves, but the fruit should be a little immature, slightly yellowed (the seeds ripen before the fruit itself). If the seeds do not spill out, they can be removed: it is more convenient for me to use a cuticle cutting tool - such a forked fork. Rinse it in alcohol and dry it over a burner flame, only then open the fruit and remove the seeds.

I am not the author of the method, but I got it right the first time, while seeding in a box made of transparent plastic and treated with bleach failed.

The nutrient medium is as follows, pH 4.8 - 5.8:

  • Fertilizer "Bona Forte" for orchids 3.3 ml,
  • Sugar 20 g,
  • Agar-agar 15 g,
  • Banana puree 50 g,
  • Fill with distilled water to a volume of 1 liter.

The acidity of the medium (pH) for sowing epiphytic orchids should be in the range of 4.8 - 5.5. You can adjust the pH of the solution with lemon juice if the pH is above normal, or baking soda if it is lower. For shoes, acidity is neutral, pH 7.0. We check with a litmus test.

We finish the sowing procedure: the jars are tightly closed, we put them on a tray at a temperature not higher than 25 degrees (not lower than 18), only in diffused light, no direct sun. If there are solar windows, then we put them in the room under fluorescent lamps. Duration of daylight hours is 12-20 hours. We are waiting for seedlings - they appear on average within 2-4 weeks.

At the age of seedlings about 4-5 months, repeat the entire procedure in order to plant seedlings more rarely, otherwise they will suppress each other, but in addition, transplant to a more correct sterile substrate. I take all the components, like the previous solution, only the sucrose is half as much - the excess of carbohydrates inhibits the development of seedlings. You need about 10 g of sucrose per 1 liter of solution.

At about the age of 8-10 months, when the seedlings already have clearly visible roots and leaves, they need to be transplanted. Rinse the plants themselves from agar in a distillate, soak in an antimycotic solution, for example, quinazole, for about 30 minutes.

Cooking the substrate: sphagnum moss is cut with scissors, finely chopped pine bark, you can add foam chips. We put in the oven for 10 minutes at a temperature of 200 degrees. We put the substrate into the greenhouse (for example, a plastic cake box), transplant the seedlings, put them in a permanent place. Humidification - by spraying with distilled water. Top dressing with complex fertilizers for orchids, with a concentration of about 10 times less than the norm.

Temperature 24-25 degrees, ambient light 12 hours, regularly ventilate.

By the way, for the first time your orchids grown from seeds will bloom only after 5-7 years. Good luck.

Artem Kipelov

  • Orchid growing conditions
  • Transplant and soil for orchids
  • Orchid pests and other growing problems

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