Indoor Fern Care

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Indoor Fern Care
Indoor Fern Care
Video: Indoor Fern Care
Video: Don't Do these 7 Things to your Indoor Ferns! 2023, February

In nature, there are thousands of species of ferns, in indoor and greenhouse conditions, more than 200 are grown. This is one of the most common plants used for landscaping premises and household plots. At home, ferns are considered unpretentious plants, probably this opinion was formed due to the ability of many species to tolerate drying out. Another plant would simply die, but the fern, after cutting off all the dried leaves (wai) and moistening the earthy coma, will start growing again. However, the ability to survive in extreme conditions and at the same time have an attractive, decorative look is not the same thing.

For a fern, certain conditions must be created so that one could say about it - handsome! Fern is one of the oldest plants on earth. In nature, it grows under a forest canopy, where it is always humid and where direct sunlight does not penetrate, so ferns have no adaptations to retain moisture and protect from the scorching rays of the sun. Based on this, it is necessary to create appropriate conditions for their maintenance.

Nephrolepis Nephrolepis


Nephrolepis (phrolepis) is considered the most unpretentious of the ferns, but it is very rare to find a specimen whose tips do not dry out. There are many varieties of nephrolepis and all of them, in addition to miniature species, require a large volume, space for the growth of its beautiful openwork leaves, which can rise above the root collar and fan out, or can rise and fall like a fountain, reaching a length of three meters. This fern does not like tightness, it needs a free flow of air, but it is afraid of drafts. In a small apartment, it is necessary either to free up a large space for nephrolepis, or to breed miniature varieties, otherwise delicate fronds break if they are constantly touched, and debris will stick out instead of the beautiful curling tips of the leaves.

All ferns do not tolerate direct sunlight, so it will be comfortable on the windowsill if the sun looks there only in the early morning or late afternoon. Nevertheless, these plants are very light-loving, and with insufficient illumination, their finely cut leaves become shorter, narrower, lose their color saturation, i.e. look less decorative. In a bright room where the sun is for a long time, it is better to place the fern at a short distance from the window, which is curtained with a tulle curtain.

Watering should be such that the earthy lump always remains slightly damp. If overdrying occurs, some or all of the leaves will turn yellow and dry out. In this case, they must be removed, the pot should be placed in a container with settled tap water for 30 minutes, then put in a bright place, new leaves will soon begin to grow. When watering from above, especially old, overgrown plants, it may turn out that the inside of the earthen lump is not completely wetted, while the leaves lose their color saturation, become faded, so you can suggest this watering method: water abundantly from above, slowly until the pallet, the dimensions of which are sufficient, will not fill with water. After 30 minutes, if all the water is not absorbed, then it is better to drain it. The bay is very dangerous for ferns, especially young ones.

Water the plant with soft and warm water. In winter, watering should be more moderate, otherwise, with abundant watering at high temperatures, the fronds will continue to grow (especially if the soil is very nutritious), but due to a lack of light, the distance between the openwork segments of the leaves will be too large, and the segments themselves will be small.

Ferns do not tolerate dry air, all types of nephrolepis like frequent spraying with warm water during the heating season. Due to the dryness of the air, the ends of the leaves of nephrolepis dry and break off. You can hang wet towels on the radiators, or fill the tray with wet sphagnum moss, put the plant on a tray - cat litter filled to the level of the grate with water, etc. If the apartment is warm in winter (about 25 degrees and higher), then the humidity is low. The lower the temperature in the room, the higher the humidity. It is cooler on the windowsill, but for most species, as already mentioned, there is not enough volume.

Almost all ferns grown at home are thermophilic, the optimum temperature for them is 15 - 22 degrees, but they will withstand a short drop in temperature to +5, unless they were previously well watered.

Ferns need nutritious soil. Leaf humus and approximately 1/10 of the rotted manure must be added to the garden soil or purchased substrate, then feeding will not be needed for one and a half to two years, and after this period, you can transplant into a container of a larger diameter. If the plant has grown too much, then when transplanting, it is necessary to separate part of the roots with the vays growing from them, and fill the vacant space in the pot with humus. Then the plant can be left in the same container.

After division, nephrolepis can hurt for some time: the leaves lose color, some of them dry out, to avoid this, only young growths need to be separated, trying not to damage the root ball of the mother plant, in other words, to separate what is easily separated. The roots are not pruned during transplantation, only old and rotten ones can be removed.

The pot must be selected high (the height is greater than the diameter), in order to put drainage on the bottom, and leave enough space at the top for watering. When planting in a new pot, the roots must be straightened, deepened no more than the level that was originally. Almost all ferns do not require large containers. So in a pot of 5 liters, nephrolepis with long fronds grows beautifully, the green mass of which is sometimes greater than that of a tub plant.

Ferns are fertilized with liquid fertilizers, reducing the dose by half compared with the recommended on the label, less often than other plants (once or twice a month, depending on the time elapsed after transplanting). Top dressing period: from May to September.

As the fern ages, its appearance deteriorates due to the fact that a large number of stalks from dead leaves stick out above the root collar. They can be carefully removed with small scissors, taking care not to damage the fragile petioles of healthy leaves.

Caring for Nephrolepis - in the section of the Encyclopedia of Houseplants.

Of all the pests of indoor plants, it is possible to isolate the defeat of nephrolepis with scabbards. Their appearance is not immediately noticed, but only after the openwork feathers of the leaf begin to dry out and crumble en masse, exposing its core. Vaya loses all its decorative effect. Scabies settle, as a rule, along the leaf shaft at the base of the leaf blades; an inexperienced person takes them for natural tubercles-growths, confused with spores (sporangia are located on the back of the leaf blade in symmetric rows).

The affected leaves must be removed together with the stalk, cutting them off at the very root. On those leaves where there are still no dried and crumbling feathers, it is necessary to conduct a thorough examination and remove the scabbards, scraping them from the base of the leaves, then treat the whole plant with Aktelik. The drug has a 2nd hazard class, it is better not to use it indoors, especially if you have children, old people or not very healthy family members in the house. The respirator only prevents small droplets from entering the respiratory tract, but does not protect against toxic fumes. Other drugs won't help.

Thus, the conclusion suggests itself: it is better to prevent infection with scabbards than to fight them. The pest can be brought home on a store-bought plant brought from a friend, so the "newbie" must go through quarantine and then a thorough examination. Other pests for ferns are less dangerous and easier to deal with. Bacterial and fungal diseases will not occur if you provide suitable conditions for keeping nephrolepis.

There is a myth that ferns supposedly purify the air from toxic impurities. This is not true, on the contrary, they do not tolerate polluted air badly. The truth is that the large biomass of a plant absorbs carbon dioxide well during daylight hours, while releasing oxygen, a person breathes easier in such a room. Therefore, ferns should not be placed in the bedroom, but in the kitchen or living room.

Davallia Davallia


The openwork leaves of this fern look very delicate, but at the same time they are very elastic, not brittle (even when dropped). The leaves, like all ferns, grow directly from the roots and are up to 30 centimeters long, so davallia is a fairly compact plant.

In indoor conditions, it is a very unpretentious plant, unlike other types of ferns, davallia easily tolerates dry air, it belongs to shade-tolerant plants, does not tolerate direct sunlight, but it can live where other plants are too dry and dark.

Davallia is an epiphytic fern, in natural conditions it feeds on the products of decay of bark and wood, so the substrate for it should be the same as for other epiphytic plants (orchids, for example). To independently prepare the substrate, you need to take as a basis high-moor coarse-fiber peat - 2 parts, add a small amount of light turf soil, deciduous humus, crushed bark, finely chopped sphagnum moss and one part of coarse river sand.

These ferns are planted in low but wide pots, hanging vases, baskets lined with moss from the inside, containers in the form of a wide goblet on a leg. The davallia will look very nice in a composition with a beautiful root. Possible options: a pot with a plant is fixed on a beautiful winding root; a recess is hollowed out in a small snag where the plant is planted; the soil is placed in a wide container and a small bark is buried in it and davallia is planted. In any case, the low capacity will hardly be visible under the hanging hairy paws, roots and leaves.

Davallii do not tolerate waterlogging, there should be no water in the pan, dampness leads to decay of the roots. It is desirable that the earthen lump is constantly only slightly damp; when dry, the leaves turn yellow and fall off from the roots, while the dried leaves do not crumble, as, for example, in nephrolepis, under the pots with which garbage is constantly accumulating. In davallia, after drying, it is necessary to remove dead leaves, slowly soak an earthen lump with warm, settled water, and it will quickly recover from stress. Constant spraying is not required.

Caring for Davallia - in the section of the Encyclopedia of Houseplants.

Dawallia is propagated by division during transplantation, separating what is easily separated. You can simply detach one “foot” with a couple of leaves on it, put it on a damp substrate covered in damp moss, pin it down with a pin made from a coated paper clip, and maintain this moisture until new growth appears.

The first transplant will not be needed for a long time. The plant does not grow upward, but expands in width. When there is practically no soil left in the pot, the dawallia is transplanted into a pot with a larger diameter. Like other epiphytic plants (living, but not parasitizing on other plants), davallia roots are poorly separated from the walls of the pot, they seem to stick to the walls, it is better to break the ceramic container in order to separate the plant without damaging it.

Put a layer of expanded clay on the bottom in a container with a larger diameter, cover it with a layer of soil about 5 cm, put on it an old pot or an empty pot similar to the old one in shape and size, fill the gap between the pots with an earthen mixture, tamp lightly, take out the empty pot, and in its place place the root ball of davallia.

It is important not to deepen the plant more than the initial level, all the shaggy "paws" should remain on top, but it is advisable to pour fresh soil under them to tamp it, you need to use a wooden stick with a flat end with a diameter slightly thicker than a pencil. Roots that were previously hanging over the edge of the pot should be straightened horizontally and carefully placed over fresh soil.

Davallia uses nutrients very sparingly, therefore it does not require frequent transplants and fertilizing, this is also its charm, since many decorative deciduous indoor plants grow quickly, lose their decorative effect, and require transplanting into larger and larger containers. Davallia can be transplanted and forgotten about it for several years! Naturally, one should not forget only about watering. Definitely a plant for busy indoor plant lovers. It looks very good as a single specimen, as an ampelous plant, a plant in a group, in a composition with other plants.

Maidenhair adiantum


Maidenhair is one of the most beautiful indoor plants. This fern has very delicate leaves with thin, dark, wire-like petioles and segmented leaf blades with rounded edges. Among several varieties of maidenhair, the most beautiful is Tenerum Farleyense, the most common is Capillus Veneris (Venus of the Hair). There are variegated varieties with yellow-green and orange-red color of pinnately dissected leaves.

Maidenhair plants belong to the plants of moderately warm rooms, i.e. the acceptable temperature range for them is from 12 to 25 degrees (ideally, if the temperature ranges from 15 to 20 g.). During the strong summer heat, it is better to remove the plant from the windowsill, because this is the hottest place in the room, even if the window is north. The coolest place on the floor. Direct sunlight is contraindicated in maidenhair, as in all ferns.

The plant does not tolerate drying out at all. They forgot to water on time, and in just a couple of days all the leaves will turn yellow and then begin to dry. There may not be a single living leaf left in the pot, but do not rush to throw the plant away. It is necessary to cut off all dried or yellowed leaves, lower the pot into a vessel with lukewarm, settled water, so that the water level reaches the level of the soil in the pot, when the water soaks the soil well, the plant is removed, the excess water is drained and placed on a dry pan.

In a few days (depending on the temperature) the first green curls will appear, and over time the maidenhair will fully recover and become a curly handsome man again. This is the beauty of this plant - just a phoenix! Maidenhair loves regular watering, but at the same time, like most plants, it suffers greatly from excess moisture and begins to hurt at the same time. Excessive moisture in the pot is especially dangerous when the apartment is too cold or too hot.

Caring for the Maidenhair - in the section of the Encyclopedia of Houseplants.

To prevent the roots of the plant from rotting, be sure to drain expanded clay at the bottom of the pot, water must be poured slowly, in portions, until the excess appears in the pan. If after 20-30 minutes the water from the pan has not been absorbed back into the pot, then it must be drained. How to make sure that there was enough water when watering (it could simply drain along the walls without wetting the earthen lump)? This is easy to do if you raise and evaluate the weight of the pot before and after watering; after watering, the pot should be significantly heavier.

When the plant is healthy, the soil dries out rather quickly and you have to water it often. As soon as the maidenhair begins to lack moisture, its beautiful leaves become dull, in this case it is better to water it by immersing the pot with the plant in warm water, as mentioned earlier, otherwise it is difficult to wet the soil in the pot, which is typical for almost all ferns. Watering should be reduced as the daylight hours decrease. With a lack of light, the leaves of the maidenhair stretch out and their fan-shaped segments become smaller, which leads to a loss of decorativeness.

Maidenhair do not tolerate spraying, although they do not like the dry air of rooms with central heating, so you need to make sure that the jets of hot air rising from the battery do not hit the leaves. If the plant is affected by fungal or bacterial diseases, then treatment by spraying it with the appropriate chemicals will only worsen the situation. In this case, you need to remove all the affected parts of the plant, transplant into fresh soil, burying several pieces of charcoal or activated carbon tablets from the pharmacy into it. Chemicals can only be used when watering. For the same reason, it is necessary to avoid pest infestation of the maidenhair. The formation of black tubercles along the edge of the leaf blade of a mature leaf is not a disease or a pest, these are spores characteristic of all ferns.

The maidenhair is bred by dividing old bushes. The soil can be used as usual, the same as for other decorative deciduous plants. When transplanting, it is not necessary to deepen the maidenhair, more than the original ground level. Top dressing can be carried out only a year after transplanting; maidenhair does not tolerate excess nitrogen. From May to September, you can feed with liquid fertilizer once a month, in doses equal to half of the norm indicated on the label.

Author Rusinova Tatiana Alexandrovna

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