Most succulents reproduce by seed, stem cuttings, leaf, part of the stem, and babies. Propagating succulents, like all other plants, preferably in the spring, but many take root well during the summer.
Cuttings of some succulents can be placed in water, these are zamiaculcas, euphorbia mile, synadenium, aeonium and some others. But most succulents are still not adapted to take root in water, they simply rot.
Cuttings, cut or simply broken off from the mother plant, are first dried for a day so that the cut dries up and tightens. Then you can root the cutting by sticking it directly into the substrate, which should be completely dry, for example, many stonecrops take root well. It takes 2-3 weeks for rooting, i.e. after this period of time, the cutting can be watered a little, but while the cutting is standing without watering, it can be sprayed occasionally.
If you are concerned that the cutting will not take root in the ground, you can try to root it above water. To do this, the stalk is not placed directly in the water (they can rot), but fixed, suspended in a jar of water so that the bottom of the stalk is a couple of centimeters from the water. In about a month, the roots will appear.
Root on a stalk of zamiakulkas
Rooting of adenium in a test tube over water
Children on Kalanchoe with pinnate
Lithops from seeds
Not all succulents are rooted with a leaf or part of a leaf, for example, those with thin leaves (euphorbia mile, pachypodium) do not root with a leaf, but only with a whole cuttings. Others, such as zamioculcas, bastards, stonecrop, haworthia, aeonium, reproduce quite easily by the leaf. The leaf is also dried for several hours, and then not planted, but placed on a dry soil surface, or slightly pressed, no deeper than 0.5 cm. And they leave it in a bright place without watering, but periodically spray it.
The soil for rooting cuttings or leaves is the same as for an adult plant, but you can also root on / on clean sand.
Seed propagation of succulents is usually more painstaking but much more fun.
Seeds are sown in disinfected soil or sand, always under good lighting and warmth. Important: maintaining a constant fairly high temperature (individually for each genus or species), usually an average of 26-28 ° C, during the day. And also powerful lighting, as a rule, artificial - supplementary lighting with fluorescent lamps. In this case, the lamps are equipped with reflectors and placed as close as possible to the seedlings. Succulents grow rather slowly, so the organization of this process is similar to the creation of a flower incubator. Fans of succulents or cacti don't plant one seed at a time, but sow whole trays, a real nursery garden.
Seeds are sown in wide bowls, in a mixture of well-rotted leafy earth and sand in equal amounts. Although you can sow in clean sand. But in any mixture, fine washed gravel (fraction 3-4mm) is poured into the top layer. Babies have a need for regular, uniform, but not excessive moisture, but so that the seedlings are not washed out of the ground, they are not watered, but sprayed. Gravel does not absorb or retain water, so the seedlings do not rot.
To maintain constant warmth and a certain humidity, the seedlings are covered with glass or a hood, opening to ventilate periodically. It is best to buy a mini greenhouse, or make one yourself using plastic cake containers.
Seedlings are very susceptible to rot and other infections, often if one seedling falls ill, then almost the entire crop is diseased. Therefore, nursery babies require constant attention and careful care. Overdrying is also fatal for them. Usually, the first time after the emergence of seedlings, the substrate is maintained in a moist state, after 2-3 months it is possible to allow the substrate to completely dry out, but not more than for a day.
Many succulents require great care and accuracy when grown from seed. For example, lithops and other "living stones": the temperature is constantly 22-25 ° C, dive after the first "molt", pinching the tip of the root. When transplanting, you need to ensure that the central root does not break, does not bend, but is located vertically, the transplanted are not watered for 5-7 days.
General information about succulents
Succulents in the collections of members of the forum