Table of contents:
- Citrus soil
- Citrus crown formation
- Citrus transplant
- Watering citrus
- Citrus fertilizing
- Citrus Acclimatization
Nutritious air and permeable soils are suitable for citrus plants. A mixture made up of equal parts of sod, leafy soil, manure humus with the addition of coarse river sand 1: 1: 1: 0.5 is best suited. The older the plant, the higher the percentage of sod land in the mixture increases. The land is prepared in advance: the sod is removed from the meadows and placed in piles for decay, deciduous humus is taken from under the lindens and birches, river sand must be well washed. The acidity of the soil should be between 5.5 and 7.0 pH, if the acidity is lower, you can add deciduous tree ash to the mixture. The acidity of the soil can be measured with an acidity indicator or with a litmus test. The finished mixture must be sieved through a mesh. Ready mixtures can be frozen, the number of pests and weeds in this case is reduced.Steaming in a water bath gives a good result of soil disinfection. Water is poured into a pot with a larger capacity and a pot of smaller capacity with earth is placed. "Bath" is installed on the stove and heats up, when the water boils, soak the mixture for about 0.5 hour, shake out the earth and fill in a new portion. The sand can be baked in the oven before use.
Citrus crown formation
In order for citrus fruits to have a beautiful crown, they begin to bear fruit faster at home, the formation of a tree is needed. First of all, a stem must be formed on a tree that has grown from a seed, grafted or grafted. Before pruning and pinching the plant, mentally create the shape of the future tree. What will it be? You can give a rounded shape (most suitable for low-growing citruses), can be formed with palmette (suitable for large spreading trees), you can use a bush, etc.
I will dwell on the classic form - a tree with a rounded crown. The stem is cut or pinched at a height of 20-25 cm from the soil level. Then lateral shoots should appear on the trunk - future branches of the first order. But citrus fruits are very stubborn, instead of side branches, the upper shoot may appear repeatedly - an extension of the trunk. How sorry it would not be, just delete it, get your way - you need skeletal branches. Pinch the branches of the first order at a length of 20-25 cm, make sure that they are evenly located on the trunk in different directions, there should be at least 3-4 of them. Pinch branches of II and more orders of branching at a length of 15-20 cm. Remember, citrus fruits are formed on branches of 4-5 orders.
While the plants are young, pay attention to the crown light. For even growth, citrus fruits should be rotated 10 degrees every 10 days. Make sure that young shoots do not go inside the crown, bend them to the sides or remove.
Until the crown is formed, do not allow fruiting - branches with fruits do not give growth.
It is necessary to transplant citrus fruits when the roots are completely entwined with an earthen ball, you can find out about the transplant by looking at the bottom of the pot. If roots appear from the drainage hole, a transplant is necessary. Prepare a new pot, it should be 2-3 cm larger in diameter in size, pour drainage (expanded clay or charcoal) on the bottom, fill it with sand and top your soil. Take the plant, turn it over and remove the old pot, if the pot does not come out, then you can knock on the walls with a wooden stick. Having taken out an earthen lump, immediately place it in the prepared pot in the center, fill it with earthen mixture along the edges and tamp it well. Tamping can be done by lightly tapping the pot on the floor. When transplanting, try not to disturb, especially to injure the roots of citrus fruits. Water well.Protect plants from direct sunlight in the first days after transplanting.
When replanting, do not deepen the root collar. With poor compaction of fresh soil, air voids may remain between the pot and the plant, this can lead to citrus disease and leaf apparatus. Young plants (1st year of life) are transplanted 2-3 times a year, from 2-4 years annually (preferably before the start of growth at the end of February), older than 1 time in 2-3 years, while the topsoil often changes … Plants should not be fed in the first 2 months after transplanting. Any dish for citrus fruits is suitable, preferably clay and wooden, large plants grow well in tubs or large plastic pots (they are much lighter in weight).
Citrus fruits are watered with heated (5 degrees higher than the temperature in the room), settled for at least a day with water. If there is an opportunity for irrigation, use snow, rain or water taken from ponds. When using tap water, it must be poured into a container with a wide mouth in advance and placed in the sun to evaporate chlorine. Tap water is hard - to soften it, use citric acid 1 gram per 5 liters of water, nitric or acetic acid 4-5 drops per 1 liter of water.
Water from a watering can with a strainer, do not erode the topsoil. Proper watering is important for citrus fruits - water the plants abundantly, try to completely moisten the entire earthen lump. The end of watering is the water that has come out onto the pallet, drain it after half an hour. The need for watering can be determined in the following ways: the topsoil is dry to the touch; lightly tap with a wooden stick on the pot (if it is clay) - the sound will be sonorous; the color of moist soil is darker than dry. When overdrying an earthen clod, the pot must be placed in a container with water for 2-3 hours to fully saturate, otherwise the water will flow down the walls to the pallet when watering.
Do not forget to shower the plants at least once a month, protecting the soil in the pot from water ingress with plastic wrap. A strong warm stream from under the shower washes off not only dust, but also many pests from the leaves and twigs. During the fall and winter months, spray the plants with a spray bottle with warm water in the morning and evening hours.
Citrus fruits, growing at home, have a nutritional area 30-40 times smaller than in the open field, and therefore it is necessary to pay great attention to plant nutrition. Immediately it is necessary to warn that citrus fruits planted in large pots do not grow better, and the soil in pots turns sour. It is necessary to ensure that the earthen ball is fully utilized by the root system and the fertilizers applied are easily absorbed by the roots. Excessive fertilization also leads to soil acidification and without replanting can cause death.
You can do without additional fertilizing if the top layer of soil in the pot is changed monthly during the growing season. To do this, carefully remove the top layer to the roots with a wooden stick (try not to damage the roots) and fill in a new mixture.
For fertilizing watering, use a mixture of basic macro- and microelements. Fertilizers "For citrus", "Effect" and others with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium in a ratio of 5: 5: 5 with the addition of magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, molybdenum, sulfur, etc. are best suited. Top dressing in the spring-summer period should be done 2 times a month, in the winter period 1 time in 2 months. It is useful to alternate fertilizing with organic fertilizers. Citrus fruits respond positively to fertilizing with potassium permanganate (pink solution) and iron sulfate (2 g per 1 liter of water), it can be produced every month.
For top dressing I use only liquid fertilizers, I do not specifically look for them, you go to the store, take a bottle and look that the ratio of the main microelements is approximately equal.
Spring effect NP-K 10-5-5, macronutrients S, B, Cu, Mo, Zn
Effect-fall NP-K 2-7-7, trace elements S, B, Cu, Mo, Zn
I use the spring effect for dressing in early spring (spring for citrus fruits comes in February) to awaken the plants and build up the vegetative mass.
The effect is autumn from October to spring, once a month to complete the growth and ripening of shoots, to preserve the leaf apparatus on short winter days.
Dose: 1 cap per liter of water.
From April to October, I use a mixture of these fertilizers once a month: 1 cap per 2 liters of water, while the NP-K ratio becomes approximately 6-6-6.
Planet of flowers for citrus NP-K 0.2% -0.1% -0.5% trace elements B, Cu, Mn, Mo, Zn.
Dose: 1 teaspoon for 2 liters of water for root feeding, 1 teaspoon for 4 liters of water for foliar feeding (spray once a week)
Ripen-KA S-04 or Ripen-KA No. 2 NP-K 0.3% -0.2% -0.5%
trace elements B, Cu, Mn, Mo, Zn.
Dose: 1 teaspoon in 2 liters of water for root feeding.
I use it once a month from February to November.
Garden of Miracles - Lemon NP-K 6-3-6 g / l
Garden of Miracles - Rainbow NP-K 10-10-10 g / l
Dose: 2 caps for 2 liters of water.
I use it once a month from February to November.
GUMI-20 natural growth regulator 5 drops per 1 liter of water during watering between dressings.
Approximate feeding schedule:
In order not to get confused, I feed the plants on the 10th, 20th, 30th of each month. 10th - organic, 20th - mineral, 30th - organic. From November to February, fertilizing once a month with mineral fertilizers. I try to use natural organic fertilizers - infusion of mullein 1:10, bird droppings 1:20, for lack of food I feed from bottles.
Plants are living organisms, getting to your home, they break away from their usual habitat. To grow citrus fruits at home and get fruits from them, you need to pay maximum attention to them. Especially immediately after purchase - any plant should be immediately examined for pests and diseases. Plants usually come to us from greenhouses (and not only from them) infected with coccids (scale insects and false scales), spider mites, whiteflies, and aphids.
It is necessary to remove all visible pests, treat with drugs that act destructively on these pests, repeat the treatment 2-3 times in the interval specified in the instructions. Cover with a plastic bag and place on a windowsill out of the sun. When installing the plant, watch the leaf blades, it is desirable that they are directed flat towards the glass.
After a few days, start moving the plant to its designated place (10 cm each in 2-3 days). After two weeks, cut the top of the bag, after another week, cut off the top, and after another week, cut the bag in half, and then remove it completely. Do not forget to spray the plant in the morning and in the evening, make sure that the sun does not fall on the water droplets - there will be burns. After a month and a half, feed the plant with organic or mineral fertilizers. I am sure that with this care the plant will develop normally and will not shed leaves and shoots.