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Most often, violets die from overflowing with water, i.e. too frequent watering. Too wet substrate rots, and with it the roots of the plant. With a slight waterlogging, the leaves turn yellow gradually, with a serious gulf, the leaves lose their turgor: they become lethargic, not elastic, sagging. Excessive soil moisture causes a number of diseases caused by both fungi and bacteria. It makes no sense to diagnose and try to heal by spraying or watering the plant with remedies for the disease - this is useless.
How to save a violet
If the plant dies from the bay, you can try to save it:
- Remove the earthy clod from the pot. If it smells of just damp earth, then you just need to remove excess moisture by placing it on toilet paper or cotton cloth folded in several layers, and change it as it gets wet. Return the plant to the pot after 24 hours.
- If the clod smells of rot and decay, some of the soil and decayed roots must be removed. Living roots are white or light brown, while dead ones are black. Carefully, use a fork or a wooden pointed stick to separate the roots. More often, rotten pieces of roots fall off along with the soil.
- Rinse the remnants of the earthen lump in a solution of the "Maxim" preparation, in potassium permanganate, etc., drain off excess moisture or dry it, as mentioned above.
- Dip gently in a 1: 1 mixture of dry river sand and vermiculite.
- Due to the loss of some of the roots, the plant will not be able to maintain flowering, therefore, it is necessary to remove all peduncles and lower large leaves, sprinkling with crushed coal.
- In a pot, the diameter of which is slightly larger than the diameter of the remains of an earthen coma, pour drainage, a layer of soil about 1 cm, lower the diseased plant into the pot and sprinkle on top. In the soil, which is used for healthy violets, it is necessary to add more vermiculite and pure river sand 2: 1: 1, then it can be used for transplanting diseased plants.
- Insert a few pieces of charcoal (or activated carbon tablets) around the perimeter of the pot.
- Keep the plant in a warm place, do not water until the top layer begins to dry out, then water very carefully with warm, boiled water.
- After planting, you can spray with "Epin", or "Zircon", diluted according to the instructions. After processing, keep the plant in a warm, dry and dark place for 6-8 hours. You can then rearrange to light.
- If the violet survives, the growth of new young leaves begins, then it can be removed from the pot again, shaken off the soil containing a large amount of sand and planted in a more nutritious substrate.
How to avoid a flood of flowers
What you can do to avoid flooding plants, even if they are watered by another person in your absence:
1. The size of the pot should correspond to the variety and size of the outlet. The diameter of the rosette should be 2.5-3 times the diameter of the pot (see photo). Pots with a diameter of more than 9-10 cm - not suitable for violets, except for trailer varieties, 2. In pots made of different materials, but different probability of soil acidification. Ceramic pots are more likely to dry out. Collectors don't use them. Thick plastic pots do not deform when you take it in your hands, the soil does not peel off from the walls, on the contrary, it sticks to the walls. In such a pot, the greatest danger of the plant flooding.
A container made of thin and flexible plastic deforms under slight compression, an air gap forms between the wall and the earthy lump, the soil dries out faster, the roots breathe better. Such a pot is more likely to dry out. When watering, water often simply flows down the sides of the pot without wetting the ground. This is indicated by two factors: simultaneously with watering, water appears in the pan, and the pot remains light in weight, as before watering.
3. Almost never sour soil containing a sufficient amount of vermiculite. In all purchased soils, its content is insufficient, or not at all. Purchased soil of a very dark, almost black color is made on the basis of lowland peat, which sour very quickly, it is better not to use such soils at all.
It is necessary to buy soil containing reddish-brown, coarse-fibrous high-moor peat. Thus, vermiculite or perlite should be added to a suitable purchased soil or garden soil, per 5 liters of soil 0.5-0.7 liters of vermiculite. It absorbs moisture well, and then gradually releases it. It is advisable to add a full handful of cut (up to 0.5 cm) sphagnum moss and 0.5 cups of small pieces of charcoal as an antibacterial component.
4. Drainage should be made at the bottom of the pot, preferably from medium expanded clay.
5. The sump should be wide and not deep, then the excess water will spread out in a wide, but not deep layer, not exceeding the drainage layer. Excess water is drained 15-30 minutes after watering, but in such a pan, even if the water is not removed, it quickly evaporates without harming the plant, and the air humidity around rises.
6. Often soil acidification is associated with hypothermia of the earthen coma. In the cold, dark season, even in a warm room on the windowsill, the temperature can be 10 ° C lower than in the room.
Abundant watering in such conditions is very dangerous. The air contained in the pores of the soil acts as a heat insulator, and displacing the air, the water quickly cools on the windowsill, and the roots are supercooled.
Diseases in such conditions have a lightning-fast course. You can isolate from the cold window sill with the help of foam and other similar materials. And watering in cold weather can only be done with warm water (it should be lukewarm to the touch).
7. Watering is strictly metered. To do this, it is convenient to use plastic bottles, in the lids of which the juice tube is tightly inserted. The water flows out in a thin stream, you won't accidentally splash too much.
Water must be poured before it appears in a small amount in the sump. Before watering, it would be good to check each pot by weight: heavy - like those that just watered, and if the top layer is still wet from the previous watering. Such a plant must be taken under control. If the soil has not dried out even after a day, it means that there has been an overflow.
8. Overdrying of a plant threatens overflow, no matter how paradoxical it sounds. With strong overdrying, small young roots die off (they just dry out). With abundant watering, the plant, due to the loss of roots, cannot absorb all the moisture, and the soil sours and begins to rot.
When dry, the plant is watered gradually, little by little, but more often. If, during drying, all the leaves, both old and young, have withered, then all the roots have also died, it is no longer possible to save the plant.
What a violet doesn't like
- Too much watering
- Strong dryness
- Uneven watering
- Cold, long-term content at ground temperatures below 16 ° С
- Heat, prolonged storage at temperatures over 27 ° C
- Direct sunlight
- Too high concentration of nitrogen in the soil, watering with manure infusion, excessive fertilization
- Alkaline soil with high salt content
- Too high humidity and too low humidity
- Insect attack: thrips, scale insects. Ticks can only kill babies
- Heavy ground
If all of the above does not threaten violets, then they are very resistant to disease.
Is it possible to destroy pathogens by heat treatment of the soil or chemical preparations? Not. It is possible to destroy only pests by warming up: earthworms, some insect pests.
It is known that after some experiment, nematode larvae remained alive in the soil after a two-hour cultivation of the soil at temperatures above 100 ° C.
Spores of fungi, bacteria survive even in space. Therefore, heat treatment only partially disinfects the substrate. But the structure of the soil is destroyed with prolonged heating. It is not necessary to process for a long time, and no more than 75 ° C. The most convenient way is in the microwave - as soon as the earth becomes hot to the touch, stop heating.
The author of the article is T.A. Rusinova.
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