Citrus Taxonomy

Table of contents:

Citrus Taxonomy
Citrus Taxonomy

Video: Citrus Taxonomy

Video: Citrus Taxonomy
Video: The History and Evolution of Citrus (Documentary) 2023, September


  • Natural types of citrus

    • Lime
    • Mandarin
    • Citron
    • Pomelo
  • Citrus hybrids

    • Lemon
    • Orange
    • Orange
    • Grapefruit
    • Tangelo
    • Tangor
    • Broadleaf citrus
    • Rangpur
    • Kumquat
    • Calamondin
    • Tripoliata
    • Citrange
    • Citranjquat
    • Limequat

Natural types of citrus



The botanical name Citrus aurantiifolia is popularly known as Lime, literally aurantium - orange or golden, literally translated as golden-leaved citrus.

Synonyms and Common Names: Lime Lime, Common lime, Sour lime or Acid lime, Mexican lime Mexican lime, West Indian lime, Large lime Large lime, Key lime

The Citrus aurantiifolia lime is native to Southeast Asia. The cultural path of lime passed through the Middle East (Iraq, Persia - first cultivated) to North Africa, then to Sicily and Andalusia, and later with Spanish explorers to the West Indies. From the Caribbean, lime spread to tropical and subtropical countries in North America, including Mexico, Florida, and later California.


  • 'Kai' Oval Thai Lime
  • 'Paan' Ball-shaped Thai lime
  • 'lumia' French lime, Pear lemon, Sweet lemon French lime, Pear lemon, Sweet lemon.

Garnish and spice for fish and meat, spicing up soft drinks, "limeade". Lime Pie is currently mostly made from frozen Tahitian lime concentrate. According to a report from Brazil, lemons and sour limes are locally called "limao" and are planted about 6 percent of all citrus fruits. Tahitian lime plantations are growing rapidly and now account for about 50 percent of all sour fruits planted. Mexican lime comes next on the list at about 22 percent, but most of its plantations are growing poorly, being affected by the Tristeza virus disease *, which causes stem ulceration.

Lemon Eureka, locally called "Siciliano", accounts for another 20 percent. The main harvesting season for lemons and limes lasts from December to March.



Botanical name Mesh citrus Citrus reticulata Blanco - popularly Mandarin Mandarin

Synonyms and popular names: Citrus x nobilis, Common mandarin, True mandarin, Mandarin orange, Culate mandarin, Suntara orange.

  • Class 1, Mandarin
  • Class 2, Tangerine
  • Class 3, Satsuma (sometimes referred to as Emerald Tangerine)

Homeland - Vietnam, South China, and Japan. 500 BC. was known in China, 300 BC. commercial cultivation began in central China.

Varieties and varieties:

  • 'Tangerine' Tangerine
  • 'Tangerine cv. Clementine 'Loose rind mandarin, Mandarin orange, Clementine, Algerian tangerine - (loose rind) mandarin, Clementine, Algerian tangerine
  • 'Dancy' Red tangerine, Dancy tangerine, Red tangerine
  • 'poonensis', 'Ponkan' Chinese honey orange, Chinese honey orange
  • 'chachiensis' Chachi mandarin, Chachi mandarin
  • 'deliciosa' Mediterranean mandarin, Tangerine, Italian tangerine, Mediterranean mandarin, Tangerine, Italian tangerine
  • 'erythrosa' Red-skinned orange
  • 'salicifolia' Willow-leaved mandarin
  • 'satsuma' Satsuma orange, Emerald Tangerine, Satsuma Orange, Emerald Tangerine
  • 'unshiu' Unshiu orange, Unshu mandarin, Mandarin orange, Japanese mandarin, Satsuma mandarin, Unshiu orange, Unshiu mandarin, mandarin, Japanese mandarin, Satsuma mandarin.

Tangerines and tangerines of all varieties are mainly used for food fresh, slices are used in fruit salads, etc. Some types are candied. Tangerine, formerly known as Citrus nobilis var. tangeriana has the sweetest fruits with a thin skin and virtually no seeds. Tangier is a port city in Morocco, so when people talk about Moroccan mandarins, they are most likely sweet, tasty fruits. The difference between tangerines and ordinary tangerines is the bright orange or red color of the fruit (other tangerines have yellow-orange).

citron buddha hand
citron buddha hand


Botanical name Citrus medicinal Citrus medica - popularly Citron Citron

It is believed to have originated from India, spread in ancient times to the Middle East and China. For 300 years BC. was known in Greece, 20 years BC. grown in Italy. In shape, Citron fruits are usually ovoid or oblong, tapering towards the end, the shape varies greatly, the skin is dense, tough, lumpy. Citron fruits have a very thick albedo layer, many seeds. Leaves are green with a lemon scent, slightly serrated edges, oval-lanceolate or ovate elliptical, large, up to 17 cm in length. Petioles are usually wingless or with small lionfish. Citron grows very vigorously, practically has no dormant period, blooms several times a year.


  • 'Corsican' Corsican citron, Corsican citron
  • 'Diamante' Italian citron, Italian citron
  • 'Palestine' Palestine citron, Palestine citron
  • 'bajoura' Musk citron, Musk citron tree, Musk citron
  • 'dulcis' Sweet citron, Sweet lemon, Mediterranean sweet limetta, Sweet citron, Sweet lemon, Mediterranean sweet limetta
  • 'dulcis Corsican' Corsican sweet citron, Corsican sweet citron
  • 'riversii' Bijou lime, Delicate lime
  • 'sarcodactylis' Fingered citron, Citron Hand of Buddha

After boiling, to soften the taste and soften the peel, it is candied in strong sugar syrup.



Botanical name Citrus maxima Citrus maxima - popularly Pomelo Pomelo

Synonyms and Common Names: Citrus grandis, Shaddock Shaddock, Thai grapefruit, West Indian pomelo

Comes from South and Southeast Asia. Fruits are large, 15-25 centimeters, weighing 1-2 kg, usually pale green to yellow when ripe, sweet with white (or, less often, pink) flesh and very thick albedo. It tastes sweeter than grapefruit, very little bitterness. The leaves are juicy green, on short petioles with pronounced rounded lionfish.


  • grandis 'pyriformis' Chinese pear-shaped pomelo, Chinese pear-shaped pomelo
  • grandis 'shangyuan' Ichang lemon, Yichang lemon
  • maxima 'Kao Hawm' Round white-fleshed Thai pomelo, Round White Fleshed Thai Pomelo
  • maxima 'Kao Nam Pueung' Pear-shaped Thai pomelo, White-fleshed Thai pomelo, Thai pear-shaped pomelo, Thai white-fleshed pomelo
  • maxima 'Kao Paen' Flattened Thai pomelo, flattened Thai pomelo
  • maxima 'Kao Thong Dee' Pink-fleshed Thai pomelo, Thai pomelo with pink flesh

It is used in the same way as an orange, but more difficult to peel.

Citrus hybrids

Ancient citrus hybrids



Botanical name Citrus lemon Citrus limon is a hybrid between citron and lime. Probably comes from China. Read: Caring for indoor lemon.

Synonyms and popular names: Lemon Lemon.


  • Lemon Eureka 'Eureka' Eureka lemon, Italian lemon Italian lemon, American lemon American lemon,
  • Variegated lemon 'variegata' Variegated lemon, Pink-fleshed lemon,

Lemon wedges are served as a garnish for fish or meat, or with cold or hot tea. Lemon juice is used in lemonades, pies, other desserts, cooking and pharmaceuticals.



Botanical name Citrus sinensis Chinese citrus is a hybrid between pomelo and mandarin (other ancestors and later than the orange). In the annals, the orange is found in China around 1100 AD, and in India around 1300 AD. Home care for Orange

Synonyms and popular names: Orange Orange, Sweet Orange


  • 'Jaffa' Palestine orange
  • 'Valencia' Valencia orange, Valencia Orange
  • 'Washington Navel' or 'brasiliensis' Bahia orange, Brazilian navel, Navel orange, Brazilian orange
  • (Blood Group) cv. 'Maltese Blood' Maltese blood orange, Maltese blood orange
  • (Blood Group) cv. 'Sanguine' Blood orange, Blood orange
  • (Navel Group) cv. 'Lane's Late' Lane's late navel orange, Australian navel orange, Australian orange
  • (Navel Group) cv. 'Leng' Leng navel orange, Early Australian navel orange, Thin-skinned navel,
  • (Navel Group) cv. 'Washington' Washington Navel, Orange "Washington Navel", Seedless sweet orange, Loose-skinned sweet orange, Washington pointed orange, seedless sweet orange, free-skinned sweet orange.

Oranges are usually eaten fresh or as orange juice, wedges are used in fruit salads and the like.



Botanical name Citrus aurantium Citron golden is a hybrid between pomelo and mandarin. It comes from China, it is found in the annals about 300 BC. In Japan, it is found in chronicles around 100 AD. Around 100 BC sour orange appears in Rome.

Synonyms and popular names: Sour Orange, Bitter Orange, Seville Orange


  • 'bergamia' Bergamot orange, Bergamot, Lemon bergamot, Bergamot. Grown in southern Italy, the peel is used to extract oil for the perfume industry
  • 'bigardia' Bigarade orange, Bigaradia
  • 'buxifolia' Box-leaved orange, Box-leaved (?) orange
  • 'crispifolium' Curled leaf orange, Curly (?) orange
  • 'myrtifolia' Chinotto orange, Myrtle-leaved orange, Myrtle-leaf orange (USA), Ornamental orange, Chinotto, Myrtle orange, Myrtle orange, Ornamental orange
  • 'Rough Seville' Seville orange, Spanish orange, Rough Seville orange, Spanish orange
  • 'Smooth Seville' Smooth-skinned seville orange, Smooth Seville Orange

The main use of sour oranges is making marmalade, in which they are unmatched.

Modern citrus hybrids



Botanical name Citrus x paradisi Citrus of paradise is a hybrid between sweet orange and pomelo. The origin is apparently from the island of Barbados, around 1750.

Synonyms and Popular Names: Common grapefruit, Western grapefruit


  • (Pink-fleshed Group) cv. 'Foster' Pink-fleshed grapefruit, Pink grapefruit
  • (Pink-fleshed Group) cv. 'Red Blush' Red-fleshed grapefruit, Red grapefruit
  • (Pink-fleshed Group) cv. 'Ruby' Reddish-rind grapefruit, Seedless pink-fleshed grapefruit, "Ruby" grapefruit, Reddish-rind grapefruit, Seedless pink-fleshed grapefruit, "Ruby" grapefruit
  • (Pink-fleshed Group) cv. 'Thompson' Pink-fleshed grapefruit, "Thompson" grapefruit, Pink grapefruit, Thompson's grapefruit
  • (White-fleshed Group) cv. 'Duncan' White-fleshed grapefruit, "Duncan" grapefruit, White grapefruit, Duncan's grapefruit
  • (White-fleshed Group) cv. 'Marsh' Seedless white-fleshed grapefruit, "Marsh" grapefruit, Seedless white-fleshed grapefruit, Grapefruit Marsh
  • (White-fleshed Group) cv. 'Ray Ruby' "Ray Ruby" grapefruit, Pomelo "Ray Ruby", Grapefruit "Ruby Ray", Pomelo "Ruby Ray"
  • (White-fleshed Group) cv. 'Wheeny' "Wheeny" grapefruit, Vini's grapefruit

It is used to make grapefruit juice, or, chilled, cut in half, the slices are peeled and separated from each other with a special knife


Botanical name Citrus x tangelo Citrus Tangelo or simply Tangelo.

Previously described as a hybrid between grapefruit and tangerine: Citrus paradisi x Citrus reticulata, however, in the most important taxonomic list ThePlantList ( appears as a synonym for Pomeranian Citrus aurantium, it can probably be considered a variety.

In appearance, Tangelo fruits are a cross between orange and tangerine, but they have a characteristic tip elongated like a nipple, sweet. Very few seeds, dense skin that is easy to peel. Tangelo photos can be viewed here: Tangelo in the orchard


Agli 'Ugli' Ugli fruit Jamaican hybrid


The botanical name Tangor Tangor or Citrus reticulata x Citrus sinensis is a hybrid of mandarin and sweet orange. The fruits are large, like those of an orange, the thick peel is easy to peel, with bright orange pitted flesh, sweet and sour taste and aromatic. Tangor photos can be viewed here: Tangor in the orchard


"Castle" orange 'Temple' Temple Orange

Broadleaf citrus

Botanical name: Citrus broadleaf Citrus latifolia, Tahiti lime, Seedless lime, Persian lime, Bearss lime. It is considered a hybrid of Mexican lime and citron, or less likely lemon. Used in the same way as Mexican lime. The rind is rather smooth and thin, the fruit is sour and tastes like lime. The peel of the fruit does not separate well from the pulp. The pulp is light greenish-yellow in ripe fruits. Photos of lime can be viewed here: Persian lime in the fruit garden


Botanical name: Citrus limonia Citrus x limonia is a hybrid between mandarin and lime, very cold-resistant. The fruit is highly acidic, with orange peel and pulp. It is widely used as a rootstock for other citrus fruits.

Synonyms and popular names: Rangpur Rangpur, Lemandarin lemon, Chinese lemon Chinese lemon, Medicinal lemon, Cantonese lemon Canton lemon or Cantonese lemon, Mandarin lemon lemon, Mandarin lime Mandarin lime. Citrus limonia photo


  • 'gaoganensis' Gaogan lemon, Gaogan lemon
  • 'hainanensis' Hainan Island lemon, Hainan lemon
  • 'khatta' Khatta orange, Khatta orange
  • 'otaitensis' Otaheite orange, Otaitian (?) orange
  • 'rangpur' Rangpur lime


Botanical name: Citrus Japanese Citrus japonica (formerly Fortunella margarita).

Other names and synonyms: Kumquat Cunquates, Fortunella Fortunella or Kinkan Kinkan.

Previously, the genus Fortunella included about 13 species names. However, the botanical community, with more careful modern research, leaves a single species in the genus Fortunella venosa. And fortunella, the fruits of which can be sold in the grocery chain, is precisely Japanese Citrus (see ThePlantList). These fruits differ in shape - oblong, small, no more than 5 cm, orange, sweet and sour.

It is eaten whole, often sold as candied fruit (canned in sugar syrup). Kumquat Photos


Botanical name: Citrus microcarpa Citrus x microcarpa is a hybrid between mandarin and kumquat. Previously, kumquat belonged to the genus Fortunella, and therefore Kalamodin did not belong to the hybrids of the genus Citrus, however, in modern taxonomy, kumquat has the name Japanese Citrus Citrus japonica, and therefore Calamondin, by right of blood, is, so to speak, a hybrid of citrus fruits.

Other names and synonyms: Calamondin Calamondin, Citrofortunella microcarpa Citrofortunella microcarpa, Golden lime, China orange, Kalamansi lime, Panama orange, Musklime orange, Musklime lime, Philippine lime.

Calamondine halves or quarters are served with iced tea, seafood, meat, and sour juice is prepared from it. Calamondin Photos


Botanical name: Citrus trifoliata Citrus trifoliata, approved name (see ThePlantList). Although some sources still point out the genus Poncirus in isolation, Tripoliata is quite unambiguous about citrus fruits. The fruit is small, about 6 cm in diameter, round, golden in color, inedible.

Other names and synonyms: Poncirus three-leafed Poncirus trifoliata, Three-leafed lemon, Three-leafed orange. Photo of Tripoliata

Tripoliata is the most cold-resistant citrus, tolerates frosts down to minus 20 degrees, and therefore is widely used as a rootstock for other species and hybrids of citrus fruits.


Botanical name: Citrus hybrid Citroncirus Webberi. Hybrid between tripolyate and sweet orange Citrus sinensis x Citrus trifoliata or Citrange Citrange

The fruits are tasty, but bitter, used in the preparation of drinks, jam, marmalade. Frost resistance is worse than that of tripolyates - up to minus 10 degrees - the hybrid was created in order to bring out a cold-resistant orange.


Botanical name: Citrus hybrid Citroncirus Citrangequat is a hybrid between Citrange (tripoliata and orange) and Kumquat, in other words: Citrus sinensis x Citrus trifoliata x Citrus japonica.

The tree is short, slow-growing, practically without thorns. Fruits are round or oval, usually with a neck, few or no seeds. It is eaten fresh, it is used to make lemonade and marmalade.


Botanical name: Citrus Florida Citrus x floridana, popularly known as Limequat Limequat, is a hybrid between kumquat and lime.

The fruit is small, oval, greenish-yellow in color, with a sweet skin and a bitter, very sour pulp; there are many seeds. It is used as a whole food.


* Tristetsa citrus (Portuguese Tristeza) - a viral disease of citrus crops grafted on stocks of bigaradia and lime. Distributed in tropical and subtropical zones. It is absent in the USSR, an object of external quarantine. It is characterized by the withering away of conductive tissues at the place where the scion grows together with the stock. With a weak lesion, chlorosis of the leaves develops, their plate curls, they dry out and fall off. With severe damage, individual branches and whole trees die off. In diseased plants, shoot formation is weakened, the roots rot; such trees bloom earlier and more abundantly, but the fruits are small and fall prematurely. The virus is transmitted with planting and grafting material, citrus, melon and other aphids, dodder Cuscuta subinclusa. Control measures: checking the imported material in the introduction-quarantine nurseries for three years;application of c resistant to T. rootstocks of tripolyates and rangpur lime; treatment against insect vectors of the disease.

Translated by Jah, revised and updated by Natali (2015)

Photogallery of citrus and other fruit crops