Table of contents:
- Classification of roses
- Bengal roses Rosa bengalensis
- Hybrid Tea and Climbing Hybrid Tea roses
- Polyanthas Rose
- Roses Patio or Miniflora Miniflora
- Floribunda roses
- Miniature roses Rosa Miniature
Rosa roses from the Rosaceae family include several hundred (from 300 to 500) wild species, the data are contradictory, since some names have not been approved by the official bodies (the largest botanical gardens in the world), others are referred to as synonyms. There are about 20-25,000 varieties, possibly more.
Classification of roses
There are many classifications of roses, and in view of the huge number of species, species variations, hybrids and varieties, confusion appears. The same roses often belong to different groups. In addition, the taxonomy of roses in 2011-2012 underwent a number of changes, for example, Rosa floribunda Baker is the correct name for Rosa helenae Rehder & EHWilson; and Rosa polyanthos R "ssig is currently a hybrid damask rose Rosa x damascena Mill. Two organizations are involved in the classification of roses: the American Rose Society (ARS) and the World Federation of Rose Society (WFRS).
One way or another, many roses can be grown at home. Someone is cutting a stalk from a bush in the garden, someone is buying Dutch miniatures in pots, someone is rooting cut roses from bouquets. You have to understand that what we call indoor roses are the same garden roses transplanted into a pot.
Let's try to figure it out and give the most popular classification of roses:
- Wild species Wild Roses
- Old garden roses Old Garden Roses
- Modern Garden Roses
These are only those roses that are found exclusively in nature, among them there are many cultivated species, variations and varieties. But this includes only species not artificially bred in botanical gardens. They come from Asia, Europe and North America: Rosa acicularis, Rosa arkansana, Rosa canina, Rosa virginiana, Rosa woodsia.
In most cases, wild species have a short flowering period, flowers are simple or semi-double. Although the flowering of the bushes is very abundant and roses are excellent melliferous plants.
Old garden roses
This group includes roses that were introduced before 1867 - they are sometimes called antique roses. The breeding of roses took place only in large botanical gardens and took place at a rather slow pace - their history goes back several centuries. Many of them were first described in the second half of the 18th century. For example, Roses Alba Rosa alba L. and its first hybrids Hybrid Alba are described in 1753. Most of the old garden roses are distinguished by the splendor of the bushes, the strong aroma of flowers, in some, the aroma is so viscous and heavy that it causes a headache, despite all the beauty of the flowers. Old roses, as a rule, were distinguished by a stormy and long spring flowering, then the bushes had an ornamental green appearance, carefully maintained by skilled gardeners. Some species continued to bloom at the end of summer, but less abundantly.
More than 15 groups belong to old garden roses, these are:
- The Alba group Rosa alba and Hybrid Alba hybrids have dense blue-green foliage, medium-sized white roses, double, the aroma is not as strong as in Damascus roses. The stems are erect, often the apical shoots, if not cut, grow upward, clinging to the supports. There are varieties that are quite resistant to disease.
- Ayrshire roses Ayrshire Rosa - bushes of vigorous growth, rather thorny - without trimming the shoots of the shoots grow up to 4.5 m in length. The leaves are green, glossy. Semi-double flowers - a mixture from white to purple-pink, no more than 5 cm in diameter. These roses have an unusual scent of myrrh. Bloom in summer. Disease resistance is average.
- Bourbon roses Bourbon Rosa - many varieties, different vigor of growth, there are one and a half meters, for example, Bourbon Queen 'Queen of Bourbons', but most reach 3-3.5 m.Cup-shaped flowers in almost all varieties are pink in various shades, semi-double and double, large - 8-10 cm in diameter. All are very aromatic, most are moderately disease resistant. Bourbon roses have a double flowering - the second after a short break. There are very thorny (thorny) varieties, or completely thornless - 'Kathleen Harrop'. Despite the aroma and abundance of flowering, this group is not very attractive to bees and other pollinating insects.
- The Burso group Boursalt - undeservedly deprived of attention, these roses are somewhat different from others: they have long, flexible and smooth shoots, sometimes completely without thorns, reach 3.5 m in length, are good for decorating arbors and arches. Flowers are semi-double and double, crimson-purple, large. Disease resistance is average. The advantage of this group is that it is undemanding to soils, roses grow and bloom even on poor soils, and also put up with some shade.
- Centifolia roses - Dutch hybridization, super doubled - have more than 100 petals. The bushes are about 180 cm tall, the leaves are gray-green. The flowers are large, bright pink on long stems, very fragrant, but unattractive to bees. Disease resistance is average.
- Damask roses hybrids Rosa x damascena Herrm. - these roses are simply famous for their intense heavy scent. The sizes of the bushes in different varieties vary in size from 80 cm to 1.5 m, thorny. Some varieties bloom repeatedly, most once. Flowers are about 6-7 cm in diameter, white pink, intense pink. Disease resistance is average.
- Bracteata group - hybrids based on the species Rosa bracteata JCWendl. - a small group is not widespread. Shrubs with long thorny shoots, up to 3 m long, tenaciously climbing up the support, but usually they form a very dense bush. Flowers in small groups 2.5-4 cm, white with five petals and numerous yellow anthers in the center. Like regular rose hips, it forms round, fleshy fruits that ripen to a red color. Relatively recently (after 2000), the breeding of roses based on Bractatea has intensified, several wonderful varieties have been bred in the USA, for example, the pale pink "Mandarin Pearl", the flowers are small about 2.5 cm, but with a strong aroma and medium double - 4 to 11 petals, and this rose is prone to re-blooming in late summer.
- Chinese Hybrid China - in culture, mainly hybrids of the species Rosa chinensis. There are three varieties: the actual Chinese rose, Indian and Bengal roses. Common features characteristic of this group: small flowers of a wide variety of colors (except yellow), mostly semi-double and double, very weak aroma or no aroma at all, as a rule, single or in groups of 2-3 flowers. The leaves are small, the bushes are dense, not climbing. Abundant flowering, twice a season, the second after a short break in late summer.
- Eglantheria, or hybrids of Rosa Eglanteria Rosa Eglanteria - the ancestor of the group was the species Rosa rubiginosa, red-brown rosehip, which was crossed with various hybrids, for example, Bourbon roses, so the name was originally called Rubiginosa Roses. The group is small and not widely spread. Distinctive features: flexible shrub up to 3 m tall, and the leaves have a spicy apple aroma. Flowers singly or in groups, no more than 6 cm in diameter, with a faint aroma, various shades of red. It blooms once. Varieties prone to fungal infections.
- Thetis group Hybrid Foetida is the first yellow roses in European selection. Hybrids are notable for their short stature, high winter hardiness. The shrub is highly branched, requires support. Fetida bloom once, but abundantly, the bushes are simply covered with yellow, almost canary flowers, simple or double. This group of roses is good for places with dry climates, in humid places it is very strongly affected by black spot and other infections. Roses of this group are used as a rootstock for less frost-resistant hybrids.
- Gallic roses Hybrid Gall - from the species Rosa gallica, it seems to be the most ancient cultivated roses from the gardens of Western countries, they were first described as early as 1200 BC. e. in Persia. These are short shrubs, from 80 to 120 cm, medium flowers 5-7 cm in diameter, fragrant, often pink, lilac, purple, simple or semi-double, usually not single, but in groups of 3-5. The original look looks like an ordinary wild rose, only thornless, but there are very beautiful varieties with marble petals: pink or lilac strokes in pink.
- Hybrid Perpetual repair roses - who has not heard this name! Because at one time they were extremely popular. Hybrids were obtained on the basis of crossing several groups - Portland roses, hybrid Chinese and Gallic roses, and Bourbon roses were noted in genetics. Bushes up to 2 m, flowers are fragrant, pink, red, white, less often yellow, increased doubleness with a strong aroma. As a rule, relatively winter-hardy, they are distinguished by double flowering. Many varieties have been obtained from remontant roses.
- Sempervirens Hybrid Roses Sempervirens - climbing roses, require support, winter-hardy, but not resistant to diseases. The flowers are white, simple, with narrow petals and very fluffy long stamens.
- Setiger group Hybrid Setigera - climbing rose varieties usually with simple anemone flowers, but there are densely double and very beautiful roses. Almost all require support, shoots up to 2.5 m long. Roses are frost-resistant, flowering once.
- Moss roses Rosa Moss are an interesting group of roses in their origin and morphology. The phenomenon of spontaneous mutation ("sport") of the centifolia rose has led to the formation on the buds and stems of thin, pliable bristles - glandular outgrowths resembling moss. Very often they have a herbal or coniferous smell. The flowers are fragrant, some varieties have unusual hairs and sepals. This group is very diverse in size and shape, there are real dwarfs about 30 cm high, there are climbing ones with stems about 3 m.
- Noisette roses Rosa Noisette - an average of 1.5-1.8 m bushes, require garters, spreading. Very abundant bloom with double white or pink flowers, re-blooming slightly less abundant. Not hardy (freeze out). Susceptible to disease (in damp climates).
- Portland roses Rosa Portland are fragrant flowers, a compact bush, this group was very popular in the early 19th century due to the repeated flowering, which flowed smoothly from the first, that is, in good conditions, the roses bloomed almost the entire season. Disease resistance is average.
- Rosa Tea roses are the ancestor of Rosa x odorata, a fragrant form of the Chinese rose, with small leaves and stems, not very hardy. The first tea roses were obtained by crossing the Chinese rose and the giant rose. They smelled like tea. The group is very extensive - it is represented by small shrubs and climbing forms. All are very thermophilic, but bloom profusely, often repeatedly. Due to the tendency to disease, chic tea roses have remained in the past, although it was with them that the hybridization of modern roses began.
In 1867, on the basis of a tea rose, the first hybrid tea rose, the La France variety, was bred - and from that moment on there was a turning point in the selection and hybridization of roses, the florist communities developed a vigorous activity to develop new hybrids and varieties. And until now, the perseverance of breeders knows no bounds, because roses are one of the most popular flowers both in cut, in bouquets, in gardens and parks, and in home floriculture. First of all, breeders are fighting in the direction of disease resistance, frost resistance, abundance of flowering and, most importantly, to improve re-flowering.
Modern garden roses
- Rosa Hybrid Tea
- Polyantha Rosa roses
- Floribunda Rosa Floribunda
- Large-flowered roses or Grandiflora Rosa Grandiflora
- Miniature roses Rosa Miniature
- Miniflora Rosa Miniflora or Rosa Patio
- Shrub Roses or Classic Modern or Roses Shrub Rosa Shrub (Roses Modern Shrub Modern Shrub Roses)
- Rosa Rambler
- Large-flowered Largeflowered Climber
- Hybrid Kordesii
Each group can be described in detail on the pages of a separate book - the variety is great. There are tens of thousands of varieties, and they differ not only in the color of leaves and flowers, but in thorniness, length of shoots, abundance of re-flowering (if any), susceptibility to diseases and rot, frost resistance, resistance to winds (in some varieties, in windy weather, petals, and leaves) and aroma, melliferousness, etc. And such a variety is present within each group of roses. In addition, some groups do not have official status, and varieties can be attributed to two groups at once, for example, Floribunda and hybrid tea.
Below we will take a look at just some of the most common rose hybrids.
Bengal roses Rosa bengalensis
In fact, Bengal roses - an outdated name - previously stood out as a separate species, but according to modern taxonomy, this is a variation of the Chinese roses Rosa chinensis var. semperflorens, which is noteworthy - Bengal roses are not found in the wild, but they were bred in Great Britain in 1789. The bushes are on average 60-150 cm tall. They have thin, well-branched stems with short thorns, green leaves with a slight purple tint. Flowers are usually solitary, less often two or three flowers in the axils. Flowers can be double (9-16 petals) or semi-double (5-7 petals), petals from light pink, dark pink to dark red or dark red-purple. It is very popular not only in China, but also in the countries of Central Asia, Japan, Europe and, of course, in Russia. Frost resistance zone 7-10.
Bengal rose differs in unpretentiousness, bush well and blooms profusely, flowers have no smell. The flowers are medium in size, semi-double, in color from red to dark red. The Bengal rose does not lose leaves for the winter and can hibernate in rooms, flowering can continue until the New Year (but artificial lighting may be needed). Resistant to powdery mildew. It does not tolerate short and medium pruning, it can die if it is heavily pruned, therefore only weak or diseased shoots are cut off from it.
Hybrid Tea and Climbing Hybrid Tea roses
The most popular modern roses are sometimes referred to as Large-flowered roses in the catalogs of Western flower market producers. In Russia, these roses can usually be seen as cut in flower shops. As for frost resistance, everything is ambiguous, for example, varieties of Canadian selection are quite winter-hardy, European and New Zealand ones - freeze out. Best of all, they grow in greenhouses, in bouquets they hold excellently, they look impressive. You can grow in pots and containers if you root a stem from a rose from a bouquet.
The group of hybrid tea roses is very extensive, even the height of the bushes is from medium-sized 60-70 cm to high 80-100 cm, not to mention the variety of shapes and colors of flowers - there are very large ones, reaching 12-14 cm in diameter. Large-flowered roses are single, goblet or cupped, shorter and smaller flowers, sometimes in small inflorescences on erect stems. Not all hybrid tea roses are fragrant, some are beautiful, but they do not smell at all.
Varieties of hybrid tea roses suitable for growing in pots and containers (varieties height about 60-90 cm):
This group of roses was created by crossing a dwarf form of a multi-flowered rose, the original Rosa multiflora, with some varieties of tea and hybrid tea roses. Although some believe that polyanthus roses are the brainchild of Rosa multiflora and Rosa chinensis. One way or another, but the history of polyanthus roses begins in France in 1873-80. And the prospects and variety of results allowed us to single them out into a separate group. Almost all polyanthus roses are compact, therefore they are widely popular, first of all, in landscaping balconies and in European countries. They are successfully grown in containers and pots, displayed on the porch of a house or near the fence of a street cafe. The average size of the bushes is 35-40 cm at home and 80-90 in the garden, with good branching shoots. Small leaves have ciliated stipules. The flowers are also smallonly 3 - 4 cm in diameter, in small panicles, but flowering is very, very abundant (with proper agricultural technology). Most varieties are terry in all sorts of shades of red, less often white, there are no yellows.
The only drawback of polyanthus roses is the lack of a persistent scent. And there are a lot of advantages - flowering begins in June, and lasts until late autumn in warm regions, and September in cold ones. Most of the varieties are undemanding - they are not afraid of wind, sun and drafts, and are very frost-resistant - in the garden, in the presence of a snow cover, they can withstand up to minus 30 ° C, planted in pots must be insulated. Resistance to fungal infections is high, although powdery mildew is a controversial issue - if there are large numbers of infected trees nearby, this trouble will not escape roses.
Roses Patio or Miniflora Miniflora
The term Patio itself is used to describe roses that can be grown in containers. These are usually miniature roses, dwarf floribunda or polyanthus roses. That is why until now the status of the Patio rose group has not been officially approved. But, these baby babies pass in the catalogs of European suppliers under the name Patio Patio, Multiflora Miniflora or Miniature Rose Miniature, and they are great for your windowsill - undersized varieties, no more than 60 cm tall, bloom willingly, with miniature flowers profusely and for a long time all summer season. Most varieties are semi-double or non-double, in various shades, including yellow and white.
Patio Rose Varieties Suitable for Growing in Pots:
This is an extensive group, arose from the crossing of hybrid tea roses and polyanthus, therefore it is rich in variety, but not all are grown in containers, only the smallest varieties intended for garden borders, up to 70 cm high (in pots 50-60 cm). The shape of the flowers is usually cupped, less often goblet, in low varieties about 4 cm in diameter. Roses of the Floribunda group Floribunda rose are distinguished by abundant flowering - a typical floribunda is a sprawling dense shrub, more precisely, they form dense shrubs, and during flowering all the apical shoots are strewn with flowers. In shape, flowers are simple, semi-double and densely double, of all colors and shades.
Floribunda rose varieties suitable for growing in pots:
Miniature roses Rosa Miniature
These roses not only have a miniature form of bushes - only about 35 cm (in the garden up to 40 cm), but also very tiny flowers - when grown at home in pots of only 1.5 cm.The flowers are single or in small-flowered inflorescences, there are varieties of fragrant, some do not smell at all. Any color of flowers, and abundant and long flowering. Many varieties are outdoor resistant. These roses are very hardy, and unlike many modern roses, they are most often grown on their own roots outdoors.
Among miniature roses, there is a specialized line for breeding roses for home cultivation - this is the Cardana Rose Miniature Kordana Roses. All varieties are bred by W. Kordes' söhne - greenhouses in Denmark, Belgium, Germany.
Other varieties of miniature roses suitable for growing in pots:
Reproduction and transplantation of roses >>
Diseases and pests of roses >>