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The Tolstyankov family. Homeland predominantly South Africa. Fat women are an extensive genus of succulent plants, numbering, according to various sources, about 300 - 350 species. Among them are small plants (several centimeters high) and giant ones up to several meters, which are difficult to keep at home.
Types of fat women
Oval fat woman Crassula ovata or Money tree is one of the most common types of fat women, it is distinguished by its varietal variety. Most often it has a tree-like shape, sessile petiolate leaves, mainly oval in shape, rounded at the end. Synonym Crassula portulaca Crassula portulacea - or Money tree. The original form has a trunk reaching up to 1 m in height, dark green leaves with a reddish border along the edge. Leaves up to 5 cm long and 2.5 cm wide. Forms aerial roots, which are whitish at first, then turn brown. It blooms with small white or pink flowers. This plant can also be found under a different name - like the silver bastard Ccrassula argentea. Numerous varieties, including those that are undemanding in care, but variegated ones need a lighter place. By the way, the money tree blooms with good care.
Crassula oval Crassula ovata
Crassula oval Crassula ovata
Crassula oval Crassula ovata cv. 'Hobbit'
Crassula oval Crassula ovata 'Hummels Sunset'
Crassula ovata var. obliqua cv. Solana
Fatty woman oval Crassula ovata 'Undulata'
Crassula arborescens is a tree-like plant that grows up to 1.5 m in height. She has original gray leaves with a red border around the edge. Up to 8 cm long and about 5 cm wide. It blooms at maturity in spring with small white flowers, which gradually turn pink, but rarely bloom at home. Sometimes forms aerial roots. Grows well on or near western and eastern windows.
Crassula arborescens Crassula arborescens
Crassula schmidtii Crassula
- Crassula lycopodioides is completely different from the previous species. Its leaves are thin but fleshy, erect and have four rows of very small leaves. It grows quickly, and the shoots directly fall out of the pot. The twigs break off and take root easily. It blooms with inconspicuous yellowish flowers. Another name is the crassula mucosa. A completely undemanding plant tolerates a little shading. Often, the lymphatic fat woman is used as a ground cover plant, because it has small roots, does not require much moisture, grows well and is relatively shade-tolerant. It is planted in tubs or large pots for other indoor plants, preferably with similar conditions of detention (for other succulents, for example, for sansevieria).
- Crassula schmidtii is a bushy plant, leaves are linear-lanceolate, i.e. in comparison with other crassulas, they are more elongated and pointed at the end. The upper side of the leaves is green with a slight silvery pattern, the lower side is reddish. Flowers are carmine-red in racemose inflorescences. Flowering is usually very plentiful, in Europe this crassula is grown not as a perennial, but as an annual, with the end of flowering discarded, because the bush becomes loose and poorly decorative. But we can always renew it from the cutting.
Crassula picturata is a herbaceous plant with rather thin, lodging shoots. The leaves are obovate, pointed at the end, small, about 1.5 cm long. The color of the leaves is marbled - silvery-green with dark specks, reddish-purple underneath. The leaves turn red in the sun. Flowers are small, white, collected in multiflorous corymbose inflorescences.
Crassula picturata Crassula picturata
Crassula ruddy Crassula rubicunda
- Crassula tetragona is a shrub with slender shoots that often bend down and spread over the soil. The leaves are thin, long, but fleshy. Forms many aerial roots. An unpretentious look, but, unfortunately, it grows quickly and requires constant renewal with new cuttings.
Crassula rocky Crassula rupestris - with creeping shoots up to 50 cm long. Stems are thin with rounded fleshy leaves. There is a reddish bloom on the leaves, and a reddish border along the edge. A characteristic feature - the leaves on the stem sit in pairs and pairs, accrete at the base. Not a whimsical look. It blooms with inflorescences of small pinkish flowers.
Crassula perforated Crassula perforata
Crassula rock Crassula commutata
Crassula nealeana Crassula nealeana
Fat girl care
Different types of fat women are unpretentious - some care is very simple - only watering, occasionally transplant (oval fat woman), it is more difficult to take care of others: pick up the soil mixture, periodically loosen the soil, then shade from the sun, then supplement the light. Consider how to care for the money tree and, using its example, for other types of fat women.
The money tree grows at home all year round in the climate that the weather and heating season dictate to us. In this regard, it is unpretentious. But it grows and develops better in the fresh air - in the summer on the balcony, veranda, in the garden. Daily fluctuations in temperature and fresh air harden the plants, the money tree grows into a truly lush tree, with large leaves and good immunity.
How to care for the money tree
Keeping a fat woman in winter involves a dormant period at a temperature of 8-12 ° C, with a serious limitation of watering (very, very rare). Winter minimum + 7 ° С - these conditions are close to natural. At home, the fat woman is forced to put up with the high temperature, but if the illumination is low, the money tree sheds its leaves and loses its decorative appeal (becomes smaller). Therefore, in winter, you need to protect the crassula from the directed hot air of the batteries - so that the crown does not hang over the edge of the window sill, and make sure that there is enough light.
The money tree prefers bright, intense lighting, with direct sunlight predominantly before 11 and after 16 hours. Fat women love a lot of light and sun, both in winter and in summer. But from April to July, the sun is very active and the leaves can turn red, take on an almost brick shade. This is not dangerous, but for the initially green-leaved varieties it is fraught with burns, for variegated varieties, especially with red spots - it's okay.
If the plant has stood all winter devoid of a good sun, then in the spring it is taught to it gradually, first slightly shading, then removing the shading for a while. The north window is too dark for almost all crassulas, the east, not shaded from the street, the southeast and even the northwest fit, on the south and west - you need to look at the circumstances, if necessary, shade (organza, veil, or mosquito net). On dark windows in winter, additional lighting with fluorescent or LED lamps will be required.
The money tree is a succulent, and therefore it is watered moderately in spring and summer, with good drying of the soil - after the top layer of the earth has dried, wait another 3-4 days before watering. From the end of summer, with the onset of rainy cool days, you need to water the fat woman less often. If the plant overwinters in normal home conditions (in a warm room), then watering can be increased. But if it stays cool (for example, on an insulated balcony), it is practically not watered. Thus, the frequency of watering depends on the temperature, but the soil should dry out quite quickly. If, after watering, water flows into the pan, be sure to drain it immediately.
If the soil in the pot of succulents is constantly damp, dries for more than 4-5 days, it means that the soil is incorrectly selected in structure (too dense, not porous) or the volume of the pot is too large.
From late spring to mid-summer, the fat woman is fed with a special fertilizer for cacti and other succulents once a month. You can not feed the fat women regularly, but facilitate the care by adding fertilizer in sticks during transplantation. Fertilizer Agricola for cacti (NPK 5:10:20) is well suited, just don't make a mistake with the dosage: only 3/4 of one stick is needed for a pot of about 10 cm, with a diameter of 12 cm - whole. It is better to break the sticks into 3 parts and stick them into the pot in different places.
Fat women are resistant to dry air, do not need spraying, except for hygienic purposes to wash off the dust. Before you arrange a shower for the money tree, cover the ground in the pot with a film from getting wet.
How to transplant a money tree
The fat woman is an unpretentious plant, the only requirement for the soil is good uniform wettability after watering and quick drying. Soil for money tree - sample recipes:
- 1 part turf, 1 part leaf or peat land, 1 part coarse sand sifted from dust or 1 part zeolite filler. Zeolite granules (Barsik cat litter, etc.) must be thoroughly rinsed from dust, this component gives the soil the desired structure, looseness and moisture capacity.
- Another option for soil: 1/4 garden land (from the beds where fresh manure was not introduced), 1/4 peat, 1/2 baking powder (sand, brick chips, zeolite).
For adults and old (very large) fat women, the sod soil is 2 parts, some of these old people are spreading tub plants. They are transplanted every few years, since each transplant leads to the inevitable injury of fragile fleshy leaves and stems, breaking of roots. Therefore, in large Crassulas, with a height of 50 cm or more, instead of transplanting, the top layer of the earth is changed annually (removing salt deposits) to fresh soil.
Small-leaved species of fat women and a small money tree do not need to be planted in dense soil - replace the sod land with leaf (or peat) as part of the soil mixture, and transplantation is carried out annually. After transplanting, watering only after 2 days, very careful - little by little, so as not to cause rotting of the roots. It is useful to add brick chips and pieces of birch charcoal to the soil at the rate of 1/10 of the total volume of soil. Sand can be safely replaced with vermiculite. Drainage is required at the bottom of the plastic pot (made of red brick, foam or cork).
By the way, the root system of fat women is rather weak, superficial, the roots are thin, so the plants do not need large containers for planting. But some specimens have a thick, heavy trunk, if you plant a money tree in a small pot, there is a chance that the plant will fall and break. Therefore, such plants are nevertheless planted in large pots, but drainage from river stones (not light expanded clay) or one heavy stone is placed on the bottom, then light drainage is already filled in, it can be a wine cork (pieces of any non-rotting material), up to the middle of the pot, or how much extra space there is. And then they plant the fat woman and fill in the usual substrate.
Reproduction of a fat woman
The fat woman reproduces easily both by seeds and vegetatively: by leaves and cuttings. Seeds of exotic species can be bought in the online seed store, where mixes are often sold: Crassula mix Crassula mix. Sow fresh seeds better. Variant of soil for sowing: 1) a mixture of washed sand, coconut substrate, vermiculite - in equal parts; 2) a mixture of sand and general store soil - in equal parts; 3) a mixture of sand, zeolite granules and garden soil - in equal parts. The substrate must be disinfected. Do not sprinkle the sown seeds of the bastard, but knock on the bowl so that they mix with the soil. Moisten by spraying. Cover the bowl with foil and place in a warm place (24-25 ° C). Ventilate regularly (twice a day for 30 minutes).
Seedlings usually appear within two weeks. When the seedlings grow up, you need to split them into separate pots (the size of a yogurt cup). Soil: 1 part loose leafy earth, 1/2 part light turf, and 1 part sand or zeolite (cat litter pellets). Remember that during seed reproduction in Crassula, like in other plants, the parental traits are split, i.e. you may not get exactly the same plant as in the photo, it may lose variegation, have not a fringed edge, but an even one, etc.
Vegetative propagation allows you to preserve all varietal and species characteristics. To get a new plant, one leaf or a small cutting is enough. Both the leaves and cuttings of the money tree, after cutting (breaking off), are dried in the shade until the place of the cut or break becomes dry - about 3-4 hours. Then the leaf or stalk should be placed in moderately moist soil, but not planted or dripped in, but put (put) on the surface. We determine the moisture content of the soil as follows: squeeze a spoonful of earth in your fist, with the required moisture, the lump becomes blind, it will not crumble when you open your palm, but if you touch it, it will crumble into small lumps. If you have a small stalk, you can immediately plant it in the ground - 1 part loose leafy earth, 1/2 part light turf and 1 part sand, but better than zeolite granules. Water very sparingly, as muchso that the earth does not just dry up to dust.
By the way, some types of crassula themselves form aerial roots, which makes rooting even easier. And you can stimulate the formation of aerial roots by placing a pot with a plant on a wide pan with water, that is, increasing the humidity of the air.