Echeveria Echeveria - Species, Features Of Care, Problems Of Growing

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Echeveria Echeveria - Species, Features Of Care, Problems Of Growing
Echeveria Echeveria - Species, Features Of Care, Problems Of Growing
Video: Echeveria Echeveria - Species, Features Of Care, Problems Of Growing
Video: Echeveria Succulents 101 - Care Tips & Unique Traits 2023, February
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The Tolstyankov family. Echeveria is native to the semi-desert regions of Central America, Mexico and northwestern South America. There are evergreen and deciduous species in the genus, in total there are more than 100 original species (some are officially registered, some have no definite status, can be attributed to other genera). There are many hybrids and varieties.

echeveria stolon-forming
echeveria stolon-forming

Echeveria stolon-forming Echeveria stolonifera

echeveria pylosa
echeveria pylosa

Echeveria pylosa Echeveria pilosa

echeveria affinis
echeveria affinis

Echeveria affinis Echeveria affinis

Among echeveria there are many polycarpic species, i.e. blooming many times in their lives, in contrast to some fatty monocarpics, for example, the aeoniums Aeonium, which bloom and die off. Sometimes Echeveria is confused with outwardly similar representatives of another genus - Sempervivum (Molodilo, Zhivuchka) Sempervivum, which differ significantly from Echeveria both in physiology and in requirements.

Echeveria Randelia
Echeveria Randelia

Echeveria setosa varietal Echeveria setosa var. deminuita 'Rundelii'

echeveria shaviana
echeveria shaviana

Echeveria Shavian Echeveria shaviana

echeveria bristly
echeveria bristly

Echeveria bristly Echeveria setosa

echeveria agave
echeveria agave

Echeveria agavovidnaya Echeveria agavoides

echeveria minim
echeveria minim

Echeveria minima Echeveria minima

echeveria one-sided
echeveria one-sided

Echeveria sided Echeveria secunda

echeveria nodular
echeveria nodular

Echeveria nodular Echeveria nodulosa

echeveria varietal blue curls
echeveria varietal blue curls

hybrid Echeveria gorbatotsvetnoy Echeveria 'Blue Curls'

echeveria one-sided
echeveria one-sided

Echeveria sided Echeveria secunda var. glauca

Echeveria care

Temperature

Most of the Echeveria species grow in the highlands of Mexico, where there is low humidity and not too high daytime temperatures, on average not higher than + 30 ° C, but there are rather sharp daily temperature fluctuations. Therefore, the optimal conditions for growth are 22-26 ° C during the day and 16-20 ° C at night (the daily difference between day and night temperatures of 10 ° C is ideal). For temperatures above 32 ° C, move the pots to a cooler place or shade. Echeveria are very demanding for fresh air, closed unventilated rooms are not for them, ventilate as often as possible or place the pots in the fresh air (balcony, canopy, veranda).

In winter, the temperature should be reduced - ideal conditions for the winter period are + 15-16 ° С during the day, about + 8 ° С at night, with a significant restriction of watering. Many species of Echeveria in nature grow in colder conditions, when the temperature drops to + 4-6 ° C at night, but Dutch (Polish and others) plants grown in greenhouses, especially varietal and hybrid ones, are more capricious and do not tolerate such harsh conditions, it is enough for them to set at least + 12 ° С. However, constant cultivation all year round in warm indoor conditions, especially with an autumn-winter lack of light, seriously depletes succulents. If it is impossible to provide a cool overwintering, additional lighting is required.

Lighting

Echeveria needs very good bright diffused light during the day, direct sun in the morning or evening. In central Russia, shading is from 12 to 16 hours in the period from March to August (February according to the weather). North-facing windows are too dark. In the period from September to the end of January, shading is not required, and if the room is warm, then ideally you should put the pots on the southern windowsill, or arrange additional lighting with lamps (daylight, fluorescent) so that the total daylight hours are 12-14 hours.

In lighting, try to avoid three things: content on northern windows, sudden changes in sunlight, and scorching afternoon sun in spring and summer

The dramatic changes in lighting conditions stress the plants. If you are moving pots from wintering or to fresh air in the spring, do it gradually. Two to three hours of morning sun, during the week (the rest of the time shading with gauze, tulle, white paper), then another couple of hours longer in the sun, and so on, until they get used to living in full sun all day. After accustoming to the sun on some days, shading may still be necessary! The danger is not so much the sun itself (after all, the leaves are covered with a protective wax coating), how much heat - the plants can overheat, dry out and bend from heatstroke. In southern regions, the sun is too aggressive and the leaves get burned, so consider the climatic characteristics of your region.

Watering

In the warm season (spring-summer or warm wintering), watering is regular and abundant, in the cold period (in winter and summer with cold snaps), watering is moderate. What does it mean:

  • abundant watering - the frequency of watering immediately after the soil is completely dry, on the same day or the next day (depending on the temperature)
  • moderate watering - watering frequency - after the soil has completely dried out, watering after a few days, depending on the temperature, for example, at 18 ° С - after drying, wait 3-4 days, if 14 ° С - about 7-10 days, if + 8 ° C - watering once a month or less. Why the range of temperatures: depends on how stable they are, because there are daily fluctuations and fluctuations during the month, which means that the florist needs to navigate and make a decision himself. Remember that underfilling is better than overfilling as the temperature drops.

General rules for watering:

  1. Do not pour water on the leaves and base of the outlet.
  2. Use only soft water (filtered, boiled), do not use water softening reagents, except for special agents for the preparation of aquarium water (topical fish).
  3. After watering, the soil should be completely wetted, after strong drying, if the water does not seep immediately or quickly flows down the walls of the pot, you need to spill it several times in a row, then drain the water from the pallet, this ensures that the entire soil and root mass will get wet. With uneven wetting, some of the roots remain dry and die off.
  4. Before the next watering, the soil in the pot should be completely dry.
  5. Do not keep the soil moist for too long, if it does not dry out in the pot for more than 1-2 days, then you have the wrong soil!
  6. In general, Echeveria do not like either constant dampness or dryness of the soil.

Air humidity: Echeveria perfectly tolerates dry air, does not need to be sprayed.

Top dressing

echeveria
echeveria

Echeveria, crassula, sedum

Top dressing can be carried out only 2 months after transplanting, during the vegetative growth season (when the leaves are growing). Fertilizers are suitable for cacti and succulents, for orchids or bromeliads - dilute according to the instructions. It is permissible to use chlorine-free and non-alkaline fertilizer for flowering indoor plants, but dilute in half the dose recommended by the manufacturer. Feed with water for irrigation every 2-3 weeks.

Transfer

Echeveria needs to be transplanted as the outlet and root system grow, i.e. of necessity. On average, annually or every two years. In an individual pot, its diameter should be such that it does not exceed the size of the outlet by more than 1 cm.

The soil for Echeveria, like all succulents, needs poor organic matter and highly porous. Such that after watering it is instantly and evenly wetted. This helps prevent moisture retention and root rot. The right substrate for cacti and succulents: when you tightly squeeze a handful of moist soil into a fist, and then open it, it crumbles into pieces, does not hold the lump. Do not forget that Echeveria grow mainly in rocky terrain, not on sand in the desert, but on rocky areas, cliffs and steep slopes, where excess water quickly flows into crevices.

And you can get such soil qualities only by compiling your own mixture of ordinary soil and drainage particles in equal parts. You can take leafy soil (birch, beech, linden) or (universal soil, such as Terra Vita living earth) and add fine gravel to it. River sand is not suitable for us - too fine, it will clog air pockets in the soil and cement it. We need pebbles, pebbles, even better white quartz sand - all particle sizes from 4 to 6 mm. Vermiculite and perlite are not suitable, but zeolite granules made from cat litter (such as Barsik, which do not clump and do not dissolve) can be used. The granules must be thoroughly rinsed and only large ones selected.

What to put Echeveria in? The choice of pots is great, and plastic and clay containers, a little larger than the root ball, will do. Sometimes Echeveria is planted in wide containers in groups, often in a collection with other bastards and succulents. This is beautiful, but carries a potential problem: more soil can hold more moisture and lead to the risk of root rot. In such succulent gardens, the requirement for drainage increases - there must be shards on the bottom of the container and excellent drainage in the soil (at least half of the soil volume).

You cannot take the soil and make the upper drainage from the pebbles - the drainage must be part of the soil, and not only at the bottom or on the surface! Moreover, if your roots are in ordinary soil (garden soil, leafy, peat, turf - it does not matter), and on the surface, under the leaves a thick layer of stones, it is even sadder and more dangerous than just sinking into the garden soil. That is why: after watering, the water is retained in the soil layer, stones poured in a thick layer over the surface do not allow it to evaporate, and the roots cannot suck out the moisture all at once - the evaporating surface is not so large in succulents, in comparison with ordinary plants. With such a planting, root decay is inevitable. The upper drainage is needed in the form of rare stones, when the socket literally lies on the surface of the ground - 2-3 larger pebbles on different sides under the socket.The rest of the drainage is 3-5 mm particles evenly mixed with the ground. Bottom drain can be made from clay pot shards or broken coconut shells (hump up).

Read also on the forum Echeveria care and cultivation

Reproduction

echeveria reproduction
echeveria reproduction

Echeveria reproduce by leaves, cuttings, basal rosettes, tops of shoots (in long-stemmed species) and seeds.

Seeds can be sown at any time, if artificial lighting is made, if only natural lighting is planned, then sowing should be done in late February - early March. Small seeds do not need to be sprinkled with earth, spread over the surface. Soil - a mixture of universal peat soil and coarse sand in equal parts. Seeds germinate at a temperature of 20-24 ° C, with moderate soil moisture (overdrying is not allowed) and regular ventilation. Seedlings appear in the second or third week. Immediately you need to increase the lighting (you can put the seedlings under the lamps). When they grow up, plant them in pots up to 5 cm in diameter, in a mixture of leafy earth and coarse sand (2-4 mm) in a 2: 1 ratio. When the rosette of leaves reaches 3 cm, you need to transplant again, also in a mixture of leaf soil (or universal peat soil) and fine gravel in a ratio of 1:1 (as for adult plants).

For propagation by cuttings, they need to be slightly dried (put in the shade for 2-3 hours). Prepare pots according to the diameter of the rosette and soil from earth and gravel (1: 1). Stick the cuttings into the hole and slightly moisten (remove 3-4 lower leaves from the cuttings). It is important to water as soon as the soil in the pot is dry. You can transplant the next year or after 2-3 months if the outlet is growing very vigorously.

When propagating by a leaf, the technique is different: we compose the soil from leafy soil (universal soil) and coarse sand (fraction 2-4 mm) in a ratio of 2: 1. Then we pour a layer of sand about 2-3 mm, lay the leaves on it (the breaks should dry out) obliquely so that the base is slightly pressed into the sand, at a distance of about 1 cm from each other, you do not need to stuff the leaves tightly into the bowl - they will shade the growing young rosettes. We moisten from a spray bottle. Covering with glass or not depends on the temperature, it is important that the sand remains moderately moist, does not dry out too quickly. After a couple of weeks, a small bundle of leaves forms at the base. Make sure there is enough light, otherwise the young growth will stretch out.

Growing problems

If the winter for Echeveria was too warm and dimly lit, the rosettes stretch out, the leaves sit loosely, loosely, and are too pale at the base. They will not change their appearance if conditions are improved, so it is easier to renew the plant from a leaf (re-root individual leaves).

The most common problems with Echeveria are due to improper watering. Do not water at the correct frequency by day or hour. The guideline for irrigation is exclusively weather conditions, temperature and rate of soil drying. Any violations - overdrying or waterlogging can cause wilting, wrinkling and death of leaves. Watch climate changes, make corrections. The most dangerous moments are the off-season periods, for example, when the heating is turned off in spring or a cold snap sets in in August - changes in temperature and humidity greatly affect the rate of evaporation of water from the soil and irrigation is needed more rarely.

On especially hot days in summer, in small pots, the earth can dry out in literally hours. If you inadvertently forget to open a window on a sunny balcony, the plants will burn or suffocate. Sealing off strongly overdried specimens will not help; in order to protect the plants from drying out in a hot period, do not leave them in sunny places or shade the pots, wrapping them in white paper; transplant on time (if the ends of the leaves protrude beyond the edge of the pot); water in the morning, if the heat does not subside by the evening and the soil is dry, water again.

In general, Echeveria can be characterized as follows: these are drought-resistant plants when there is no extreme heat. The ideal place for them in the apartment is the sill of the southeastern window or a very bright eastern window.

Diseases and pests

Mealybugs, fungal infections (powdery mildew) and root rot (from constant dampness) pose a serious danger.

To protect the plants from the worm, sterilize the soil before planting. Regularly inspect the plants displayed on the open balcony or in the garden, paying particular attention to the root zone, the base of the outlet. Aktara treatment (spraying and watering).

Powdery mildew becomes noticeable in the form of a whitish, as if floured plaque on the leaves. It can come in with the wind if infected trees and shrubs grow under the windows, in this case the leaves should be treated with fungicides (for example, Topaz).

To avoid root and stem rot will help the regulation of irrigation according to climatic conditions and correctly selected soil (drying out no longer than 2 days), and as a preventive measure it will not hurt to water the soil with a solution of biofungicides (phytosporin, trichophyte, etc. preparations) in the offseason.

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