Indoor Tangerine, Unshiu Tangerine - Home Care. How To Grow A Tangerine From A Bone

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Indoor Tangerine, Unshiu Tangerine - Home Care. How To Grow A Tangerine From A Bone
Indoor Tangerine, Unshiu Tangerine - Home Care. How To Grow A Tangerine From A Bone
Video: Indoor Tangerine, Unshiu Tangerine - Home Care. How To Grow A Tangerine From A Bone
Video: Growing MANDARIN from Seed 2023, February
Anonim
mandarin
mandarin

Root family. The homeland of the mandarin is China, Japan, the Philippines, Cochin (Indochina). The botanical name is Cītrus reticulata.

Types of tangerines

You probably noticed that in the store, tangerine fruits have the most diverse shapes, the thickness of the peel of the fruit, the number of seeds. This is because the mandarin genus, like the orange, is very diverse. This applies not only to fruits, but also to other morphological characteristics: the size and shape of the bush, buds, flowers and ovaries. And in a store called 'tangerine' they sell not only true tangerines, but also its hybrids (price and taste are important to a common buyer, nothing more).

Non-hybrid mandarins (true mandarins, various varieties) are most commonly known as Unshiu Mandarin, although the correct botanical name is Citrus reticulata Blanco or Citrus reticulata var. unshiu, very often the name is written as Citrus unshiu, implying many varieties, united by the common name Unshiu Mandarin (seedless).

Despite the varietal differences, all tangerines have green leathery elliptical leaves, usually slightly corrugated, narrowed at the ends, lionfish are absent or small. The ripening dates of fruits are different (there is a grouping according to early maturity). Tangerines in nature rarely grow more than 2.5-2.7 m, at home no more than 1.5 m. The crown forms a fairly wide branched (foliage is different for different varieties). The Unshiu mandarin does not have a pronounced dormancy period, the leaves falling off during the year are replaced by newly formed leaves (leaf life is 2-4 years). Flowers are white, five-petaled, appear in spring on short last year's shoots. Mandarin is propagated by grafting, air layering, cuttings, seeds. The Unshiu mandarin bears fruit from the age of three to four, with proper agricultural technology.

The taxonomy of the mandarin genus has not been finally approved. But experts distinguish several groups of tangerines:

  • Satsuma mandarins include varieties of several groups: Unshiu Unshiu, Wase Wase, Owari Owari, Ikeda Ikedu, Zairai Zairai, Mikado Mikado, King King, etc.
  • Group of hybrid tangerines: calamondin, clementine, tangelo, tangerines, natsumikan, tangor, Nobils tangerine, Mediterranean tangerine, citrandarines, ichandarins.

For a simple grower who has just started growing citrus fruits, it is usually enough to know that the purchased plant is tangerine and caring for it, like most citrus fruits.

A keen citrus grower, usually in love with his business and tries to find out the whole history of each citrus tree. For him, the varieties differ in one look 'Forged-Vasya' Kovano Wase - undersized dense trees, with brown rough bark, bordered petioles, it does not have thorns, flowers are single or in a small group and large about 4 cm in diameter. The variety is popular on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus.

But the 'Okitsu' variety Okitsu Wase - originally from Japan, popularized all over the world (Spain, China, Argentina) - is also a low tree with a spreading, but thin crown, has small thorns, forms a huge number of fruits - therefore it is considered one of the most promising varieties (begins to bear fruit very early). But there is a small minus - for indoor citrus growing, Okitsu is not the best option if there is no special place for wintering. This variety is not only resistant to cold, it does not tolerate heat, dryness and needs a cold dormant period in winter.

Portuguese early variety Carvalhais Citrus reticulata 'Carvalhais' is an upright tree, leaves are usually long, pointed, like clementine, orange pulp, juicy, pleasantly sour, has numerous seeds. In Portugal, it is very popular, it is very rarely exported, since the fruits are practically not stored, they quickly deteriorate. This mandarin is a hybrid of unknown origin, it is assumed that one of the parents is the Mediterranean mandarin Citrus deliciosa.

  • In European gardeners, the classification is generally simple, all tangerines are conventionally divided into groups: Goku Wase (very early varieties), Wase (early varieties) and Owari (late varieties).
  • In the United States, tangerines are often sold, which are distinguished by a bright orange or red color, called tangerines - these are not real tangerines, their genetics have not yet been studied.
japanese mandarin mikan
japanese mandarin mikan
tangerine tree
tangerine tree
mandarin portuguese
mandarin portuguese

Tangerine care

Temperature: Mandarins are light and heat demanding. Budding, flowering and fruit setting occur best at an average air and soil temperature of + 17-18 ° C.

In winter, the tangerine needs to find a colder place - best of all, an insulated balcony. The upper allowable limit is 14-15 ° C, the lower limit is 8-12 ° C - watering is appropriate, from very moderate to poor. The lack of cold wintering can lead to the fact that the plant does not bear fruit. In addition, a large tangerine tree on the windowsill during the heating season will invariably be under the flow of hot air from the battery, this leads to drying out of the leaves, rapid reproduction of mites and other problems. If you don't have a place to spend the winter, use a greenhouse wrap to shield the edge of the window sill from the warm air in the room.

mandarin ovari
mandarin ovari
tangerine unshiu
tangerine unshiu
clementine
clementine

Lighting: from February-March to August at noon hours on a sunny window, a very light shade is needed to protect the tangerine not so much from sunburn as from heat and dryness. The southeast window is ideal for him, a place next to the south window (just behind the tulle curtain), it will be too hot in the southwest window in summer. North windows are absolutely not for citrus fruits. The general plan is as follows: from 11 to 15 o'clock - you can shade, before and after - no shading is needed, the sun is welcome. In winter, the lower the temperature, the less the need for light. If the house is warm and there is no option for cold wintering, you will have to put two 40 W fluorescent lamps (white or blue) 15-20 cm from the crown on both sides, so that the total daylight hours are at least 12 hours.

mandarin
mandarin

Watering: in summer and spring, abundantly, after the top layer of soil 5-6 cm from the top of the pot dries out - in a day or two, and when it is very hot - every day, on cold damp days, moderate, be sure to check the soil with your finger. In autumn and winter, the frequency of watering depends on the air temperature, with a cool content, watering is rare, after thorough drying of the earth. However, it is not necessary to overdry the ground to a state of dust - drying and falling of leaves, ovaries, fruits will begin. On the other hand, do not forget that plants die from excess moisture. Therefore, it is important that the soil is loose, and the watering is adjusted so that the soil after watering dries out within 4-5 days no longer.

Air humidity: it is advisable to spray tangerines in the summer, on dry hot days, but if they are kept in a room with central heating in winter, then they are sprayed in winter two or three times a day. If there is a hot battery in the room, cover it with a damp towel.

Transplant: Young trees should be transplanted annually. The transplant should not be carried out if the roots of the plant have not yet braided an earthen ball. In this case, it is enough to change the top layers of the earth in the pot - it is depleted and often oversaturated with insoluble salts. Fruiting trees are transplanted no more than once every 2-3 years. Transplanted before the start of growth. At the end of the growth, the plants are not recommended to be replanted. When transplanting, the earthen lump should not be severely destroyed.

If you just bought a young tangerine in a store, and even with fruits, you need to transfer it to a larger pot without disturbing the roots. Tangerine trees from a flower shop are grown in greenhouses and planted in peat - far from an ideal substrate for tangerines. But you cannot immediately replace it - you injure the roots and lose fruit. Pick up a pot 2-4 cm larger than the store one, pour about 5 cm drainage on the bottom (from expanded clay, shards or broken brick). Remove the tree from the old pot (if it does not come out, cut it on both sides with a hot knife). Place in a new pot and top up the soil. If part of the soil crumbled when removed from the old pot, do not use it, but no more fresh soil should be added: the root collar in the new pot should be at the same level as it was in the previous one.

mandarin
mandarin
  • Soil for young tangerines: 2 parts of sod, 1 part of leafy soil, 1 part of humus (manure lying in a heap for 3-4 years), 1 part of small pebbles (3-4 mm - coarse sand) 1 part of vermiculite.
  • Soil for adult tangerines: 3 parts of sod land, 1 part of leaf, 1 part of humus, 1 part of fine pebbles (3-4 mm - coarse sand), 1 part of vermiculite.

The acidity of the soil for citrus fruits should be pH = 6.5-7. Avoid planting in highly acidic soil.

Top dressing: when the tangerine tree begins to grow in spring, you need to start top dressing, but not earlier than a month after transplanting. It is best to alternate organic feed with mineral feed for flowering plants. Use an infusion of mullein or horse manure (1:10 with water) as organic matter. And mineral fertilizers - any for flowering, for example, Fertika-Lux, Agricola, Pocon, etc. There are also special fertilizers for citrus fruits. Mandarin is very sensitive to a lack of potassium: the edges of the leaves turn yellow and dry out. If similar symptoms appear on your tangerine, you need to carry out additional foliar (leaf) potassium nutrition. Use potassium sulfate (potassium sulfate), potassium carbonate (potassium carbonate, potash) or other chlorine-free fertilizers for fertilizing mandarin, do not use fertilizers containing chlorine - potassium chloride,potassium salt, etc.

If in winter the tangerine is not grown in warm home conditions, but at rest stands in a cold place (balcony, loggia, winter garden), then feeding is not needed. If growth continues, the formation of new leaves or ripening of fruits. You continue to feed, as in the summer, but be sure to supplement the lighting

Reproduction

breeding tangerine
breeding tangerine

Reproduction of tangerines, as well as lemons, is usually carried out by grafting, cuttings, layering and seeds. At home, the most common way of citrus propagation is cuttings, in which case the plants can bloom immediately after rooting. In this case, it is better to cut off the flowers, first let the plant grow and gain strength. But fruit trees grown from a stone can bloom in ten to fifteen years at best.

By the way, if tangerine can be grafted and grafted onto various citrus fruits: lemon, orange, grapefruit, etc., then tangerine is practically not used as a rootstock. The reason for this is the poor, slow formation of callus, poor wound healing, vaccinations do not take root, and if they take root, they are often rejected

Another way to get a tangerine tree at home is to buy fresh delivery of tangerines from the store, which have cuttings at the base of the fruit. If the leaves are still fresh, urgently place the branch for rooting in a mini greenhouse (soil, as for seeds) or root in a zip bag, or vaccinate if you have a suitable stock.

How to grow a tangerine from a bone

It is easy to grow a tangerine from a seed - you just need to soak the seed from the eaten fruit for 2-3 days in clean water. When the root hatches (the seed cracks, a small white tip will stick out of it), you need to plant it in a pot 6-7 cm in diameter, in a mixture of soil (universal for citrus fruits from the store) and vermiculite to a depth of 1 cm. Maintain the soil in moderately moist condition - do not overdry! The seed germinates within 2-3 weeks. After germination, place on a sunny windowsill.

It is also almost impossible to plant a mandarin on the wild, this is a very weak and unpromising stock.

Growing problems

ticks on tangerine
ticks on tangerine

Mandarin can be affected by powdery mildew and other fungal infections: in this case, it is necessary to spray and water the tangerine with a solution of foundationol, topaz, copper sulfate, and other fungicides.

  • New leaves become smaller, old ones turn yellow and fall off, there is no flowering, the fruits are not tied - the plant lacks nutrients, it must be transplanted into nutrient soil, and similar symptoms can be observed with ticks.
  • Yellow spots appear on the leaves or the edges of the leaves turn yellow, the leaves fall off prematurely - with excessive watering, watering should have time to dry out at least in the upper third of the pot.
  • Gray dry spots on the leaves, wrinkled leaves - sunburn, pest damage.
  • Sudden leaf fall - waterlogging of the soil, lack of light in winter, watering with cold water, low room temperature in winter, excess nutrients in the soil or cold drafts.

Mandarin pests

Scale-like brown, raised plaques on the surface of leaves, petioles and stems, mainly along the veins, suck out cell sap. Leaves lose color, dry out and fall off. The buds and flowers dry, the fruits crumble.

Control measures. Thoroughly spray the plant and water it with a systemic insecticide solution - actara. After a day, wash off the leaves with a strong pressure of warm water.

Spider mite: it is especially harmful when it is too dry and hot - the tops of the shoots wrinkle and do not grow, the leaves turn yellow and dry out, often the edges of the leaves curl inward and on the back of the leaf you can see a cobweb. The fruits fall off. There are many spider mites - some are visible with the naked eye (running red dots 0.5 mm in size), others can only be seen with a magnifying glass or microscope.

Control measures. The plant is washed with soapy water (baby soap, fairy), hold the foam for 2-3 minutes, washed under a hot shower (temperature about 45 ° C). Then dilute the garlic solution: 1 clove in a glass of water and spray the leaves, do not rinse. Repeat after 3-5 days. With a very strong lesion, tangerine can be sprayed with 0.15% actellic solution (1-2 ml per liter of water) or karbofos.

Good results in such cases are obtained by spraying with a solution of Epin, Narcissus or other stimulant

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