Indoor Lemon Lemon - Types: Pavlovsky, Meyer, Ponderosa, Novogruzinsky Lemon, Home Care, Reproduction

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Indoor Lemon Lemon - Types: Pavlovsky, Meyer, Ponderosa, Novogruzinsky Lemon, Home Care, Reproduction
Indoor Lemon Lemon - Types: Pavlovsky, Meyer, Ponderosa, Novogruzinsky Lemon, Home Care, Reproduction
Video: Indoor Lemon Lemon - Types: Pavlovsky, Meyer, Ponderosa, Novogruzinsky Lemon, Home Care, Reproduction
Video: ЛИМОН ПАНДЕРОЗА + МЕЙЕРА // (PONDEROSA + MEYER LEMON) 2023, February
Anonim

Root family. Lemon is not an independent genus, but a hybrid of the genus Citrus Citrus (citrus tribe Citreae). Therefore, its botanical name Citrus Limon, and the study of lemons at the genetic level, allowed to determine that it is a hybrid between a bitter orange (Citrus aurantium - orange) and citron (Citrus Medica).

The exact origin of the lemon is still shrouded in mystery, with the generally accepted belief that lemons were first discovered in India, northern Burma and China. The oldest depictions of citrus trees appear on Roman mosaics in North Africa. And the first descriptions of lemons date back to the beginning of the 10th century - they were found in an Arabic treatise on agriculture. The first cultivation of lemons as cultivated plants in Europe began in Genoa in the middle of the 15th century.

Lemons are evergreens, growing in nature to 4-8 m in height. The bark is gray-brown with slight cracking on older branches. Many lemons have thorns. Leaves are oblong - in different varieties, they are wider or narrower, usually pointed at the end, with a pronounced venation. The petioles are short, usually about 1-1.5 cm, with or without lionfish (this is a striking distinctive feature in the definition of the species). Usually, lemons have a pronounced transition in the articulation of the base of the leaf blade and the petiole, but in Genoa lemon this transition is not typical, poorly expressed. Lemons have a certain period of life, on average, no more than 3 years. It blooms several times throughout the year. The flowers are axillary, usually single or paired, with a five-petalled corolla. A distinctive feature of different types of lemons is the color of the buds - in some they are pure white,others have a creamy shade, sometimes reddish (or lilac). Flowers with a smell, self-pollinating. Bright yellow fruits are formed mainly on branches not lower than the fourth order. Fruits are formed on short branches - pods. A ripe fruit can remain on the plant for up to two years, changing its color to green, and then again becomes yellow-golden, in some lemons the fruits ripen in 7-9 months, in others about one and a half years.

Types of indoor lemons

meyer's lemon
meyer's lemon
meyer's lemon
meyer's lemon
meyer's lemon
meyer's lemon

Meyer's lemon Citrus Limon x Mejer

It is a hybrid of a lemon and an orange (possibly a tangerine - this point is still in question for botanists), named after Frank N. Meyer, who first discovered it in 1908. Differs in low growth, only 60-90 cm, and good fruiting. Leaves are ovoid, leathery, green, with a jagged edge. The flowers are pure white, very fragrant, about 3 cm in diameter, often in inflorescences of 4-6 pieces. Fruits are round, small, up to 180 g, it is a little more than a selected chicken egg. The fruit tastes more sour than other lemons and is eaten unripe. Early flowering of seedlings (for 1-2 years), remontability, early maturity, abundance of fruiting of Meyer's lemon make it interesting for indoor culture. But Meyer's lemon has one feature - it is prone to fungal infection (characteristic of this particular lemon),called "greasy spots" - the disease is not fatal for lemon, but extremely unpleasant, manifested in the formation on the leaves first of a slight yellowness, irregular shape, then blackening. Spots are also formed on fruits. Otherwise, Meyer's lemon is also quite demanding - it needs very good lighting, otherwise it literally goes bald, especially in autumn and winter, but the seedlings bloom very early and the plant is capable of bearing fruit for 1-2 years. However, it will be better for the plant if in the first year the ovary is cut off and the plant is allowed to gain growth and strength.Meyer's lemon is also quite demanding - it needs very good lighting, otherwise it literally goes bald, especially in autumn and winter, but the seedlings bloom very early and the plant is capable of bearing fruit for 1-2 years. However, it will be better for the plant if in the first year the ovary is cut off and the plant is allowed to gain growth and strength.Meyer's lemon is also quite demanding - it needs very good lighting, otherwise it literally goes bald, especially in autumn and winter, but the seedlings bloom very early and the plant is capable of bearing fruit for 1-2 years. However, it will be better for the plant if in the first year the ovary is cut off and the plant is allowed to gain growth and strength.

Pavlovsky lemon
Pavlovsky lemon
Pavlovsky lemon
Pavlovsky lemon
Pavlovsky lemon
Pavlovsky lemon

Pavlovsky lemon Citrus Limon Pavlovsky

Shade-tolerant tree about 1.5 m high, crown span about 80 cm. Leaves are light green, oval or oblong, pointed at the end, and finely serrated along the edge. The leaves are 13-15 cm long, 5-8 cm wide, the lionfish are not pronounced, the petioles are short - no more than 1 cm. The fruits grow large, up to 300 g, but can be about 500 g. Thin-skinned and fragrant, the peel is slightly bumpy. This lemon in indoor conditions is easily propagated by vegetative means. Of all the known lemons, it is the most suitable for indoor culture, because its fruits are early ripening (8-9 months), the plant is medium-sized and very prolific. Saplings bloom in the third year. It blooms twice a year - in mid-spring and mid-autumn.

lemon ponderosa
lemon ponderosa
lemon ponderosa
lemon ponderosa
pimon ponderosa
pimon ponderosa

Ponderosa Lemon Citrus Limon Ponderosa

This species is also known as Canadian Lemon - a hybrid between lemon and pompelmus or citron. A low bush - about 70-90 cm, with large broad-oval leaves. The leaf plate is dark green, smooth, leathery. The flowers are creamy, white with green dots in buds. Abundant flowering, and flowers are collected in inflorescences of 7-13 pieces. But usually no more than 5 pieces are tied. The fruits are large - from 350-800 g, with a thick lumpy bark and low acid. Saplings bloom for 1-2 years. Ponderosa is unpretentious, quite resistant to room temperature in winter and dry air.

jubilee lemon
jubilee lemon
jubilee lemon
jubilee lemon
jubilee lemon
jubilee lemon

Lemon Jubilee Citrus Limon Jubilejny

Lemon bush up to 1.5 m high. The leaves are large, dark green, smooth, leathery, wide oval in shape, which makes the variety similar to Ponderoza. The petioles are short, the lionfish are sometimes quite small, sometimes well visible, rounded. Flowering is very abundant, flowers are collected in inflorescences of 14-16 pieces. The buds may have a purple hue. Fruits are large, 400-600 g, with a thick skin, slightly tuberous, round or slightly elongated.

New Georgian lemon
New Georgian lemon
New Georgian lemon
New Georgian lemon
New Georgian lemon
New Georgian lemon

Novogruzinsky lemon

This species has a delicate strong odor. Leaves are light green, elongated, pointed at the end, not wrinkled, but smooth, about 12 cm long and 5 cm wide.Fruits with a very small number of seeds, weighing about 120 g, slightly elongated, tuberous rind, about 0.5 thick see Blossoms and bears fruit throughout the year (remontant variety), starting at the age of five. Vigorous trees with a spreading crown and a lot of thorns.

lemon genoa
lemon genoa
lemon genoa
lemon genoa
lemon genoa
lemon genoa

Lemon Genoa Citrus Limon Genoa

A small tree about 80-100 cm, without thorns, or they are very short and thin. A very productive variety, smooth (not lumpy) fruits, bright yellow, oval, small, only 90-110 g. The quality of the fruit is higher than that of other varieties - real sour lemons, with a thin skin and few seeds. The cultivar is remontant, the seedlings bloom in the fourth or fifth year. The leaves are oblong, pointed at the end, a characteristic feature is a smooth transition from the petiole to the leaf blade. Lionfish are absent. In culture, it is less common than other lemons.

lemon lisbon
lemon lisbon
lemon lisbon
lemon lisbon
lemon lisbon
lemon lisbon

Lemon Lisbon Citrus Limon Lisbon

A vigorous tree, well leafy, with a large number of thorns, in nature very tall and fast-growing trees, in room conditions on average about 1 m tall. The leaves are oblong, rather wide, pointed at the end. Fruits are medium in size, about 180-200 g, bitter, few seeds, the skin is not thin, about 0.7 cm, almost smooth. Blooms in the third year. A remontant variety, it tolerates high temperatures well.

Lemon care at home

Temperature

Lemons are demanding for light and warmth. In summer, the temperature is, naturally, the usual room temperature. Budding, flowering and fruit setting occur best at an average air and soil temperature of + 15-18 ° C. Such wintering can be provided on an insulated balcony or by fencing the window sill from the room with plexiglass, polycarbonate, or even a greenhouse film. Some of the lemons (Ponderoza, Jubilee) survive the winter rather tolerably even at higher temperatures, but it is necessary to humidify the air.

In winter (at least from November to January), lemons must be kept in a bright, cool room from +8 to 14 ° C, or slightly lower, i.e. a short-term drop to + 4-5 ° C will also withstand. At the same time, the lemon does not shed leaves, but completely stops growing. The end of the dormant period should take place gradually - gradually raise the temperature and accustom you to better lighting (direct sun). The lack of cold wintering can lead to the fact that the plant does not bear fruit.

In addition, lemons are quite sensitive to climate change. If you put a fruiting tree on the street, then due to a sharp change in daylight hours and temperature conditions, it can shed fruits and even leaves, the result of a climate change may be a lack of fruiting for the next year.

Lighting

Bright diffused light in summer, with direct sunlight in the morning or evening, and light shading during the day from 11 to 16 hours - during the hottest hours. Different types of lemons have different attitudes towards lighting. Some are very light-requiring, especially Meyer's lemon, which is placed on the south window. Others can thrive in full artificial light. Lemon is a plant with a short day length, i.e. with too long daylight hours, they grow, and fruiting is delayed.

It is especially important that there is enough light in autumn and winter, and even more so, this is important if the temperature drops slightly. Those. at temperatures from +5 to 14 ° C, additional lighting is not needed - there will be no growth. If the temperature is 16 ° C or more, the plant will continue to grow slowly, which means that additional lighting may be required. The total daylight hours should be 10-12 hours. Lemons and other citrus fruits can be illuminated with fluorescent lamps (white or blue spectrum), for example, on a tree about 1 m high, 2 lamps of 20-25 W each are needed, on both sides of the windowsill. The problem with such lamps is that the distance to the leaves should be from 10 to 20 cm.If the plant is not on the window, but in the room, then at least 3-4 lamps must be placed and placed so that the crown is illuminated as evenly as possible.Also, for supplementary lighting, you can use 250W metal halide lamps with a mirror reflector (but this is the case if the plant is not one, but the entire window sill is covered).

Watering

In summer and spring, lemons are watered quite abundantly, but taking into account the fact that the soil should have time to dry out in the upper third of the pot before the next watering. In winter, watering is more rare and moderate, it directly depends on the temperature in the room. The soil should dry out for the next watering in the upper 2/3 of the pot, i.e. in winter, complete drying of the earthen coma should not be allowed, but excess moisture leads to decay of the roots (especially in cold conditions), and the death of the plant. To ensure breathing for the roots, and to prevent stagnation of water in the pot, the top layer of the earth in lemons is periodically loosened.

Air humidity

Lemons are regularly sprayed during the summer, but if kept in a centrally heated room during the winter, they are also sprayed during the winter. When kept indoors with dry air, lemons are attacked by pests (primarily mites). The optimum air humidity for lemons is 60-70% - this humidity is usually in summer, if it rains periodically, when there is no rain, it is about 50%. But in winter, during the heating season, the air humidity is 20-30%, therefore it is necessary to lower the temperature, or spraying.

Transfer

Young lemon trees need to be transplanted annually. The transshipment should not be carried out if the roots of the plant have not yet braided an earthen ball. In this case, it is enough to change the drainage and top soil layers in the pot.

Fruiting lemons are transplanted no more than once every 2-3 years. Transplanted before the start of growth, i.e. in late winter, early spring. When transplanting, you should not greatly destroy the earthen lump, lemons do not tolerate root injuries well. It is imperative to make high drainage in the pot (large expanded clay or pieces of wine cork). When transplanting, the root collar in the new dish should be at the same level as in the old dish. If the lemons have not been transplanted for a long time, and the soil has sank, caked, then the tree is mulched - they add fresh soil or well-rotted compost on top. It is also necessary to replace the top layer of the earth if a salt deposit has formed on it.

  • Soil for young lemons: 2 parts turf, 1 part leafy soil, 1 part humus (compost) and 1 part sand.
  • Soil for adult lemons: 3 parts turf, 1 part leaf, 1 part humus (compost) and 1 part sand.

Plus, birch or alder coals can be added to the soil for lemons (a glass for a bucket of earth), as well as pine bark (fraction 0.5-1 cm, a liter per bucket of earth) and vermiculite (also 0.5-1 l on a bucket of soil). The acidity of the soil should be between 5.5 and 7.0 pH.

Top dressing lemons

In the first half of summer, 1.5-2 months after transplanting, fertilizing can be applied. This increases the sugar content of the fruit and reduces the bitter taste that is characteristic of citrus fruits at room culture. The plant needs more fertilization, the older it is, and the longer it is in the same pot. Fertilizers are applied only on wet soil. With additional artificial lighting, citrus fruits in winter also need to be fertilized about once a month.

Reproduction

lemon grafting
lemon grafting

Lemon grafting Lemon

lemon cuttings
lemon cuttings

rooting in a zip bag

Reproduction of lemons is carried out by grafting, cuttings, air layering and seeds. In indoor conditions, the most common way of propagating citrus fruits is cuttings - Pavlovsky lemon, Ponderosa and Mayer's lemon are best cut. You need to cut a twig 10-12 cm long, prepare sterile soil: peat soil (Terra Vita) in half with sand. Pour the soil into a zip bag, slightly moisten and immerse the cutting in it. Close the package and hang it in a bright place (the southeast window is best). The bag is warm and very humid; no moisture is required. When the roots appear, they will be visible through the bag. You can remove the bag and open it - you need to accustom to drier air gradually: every day you open the bag for a longer time.

For more information on breeding and caring for lemon, see the Citrus section (parts 1 and 2)

Article by Alexander Zaitsev "Basic principles of citrus content"

Article by Alexander Zaitsev "The content of citrus fruits in winter"

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