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Arec family (palms). Homeland India, Indochina, Asia, islands of the Malay archipelago. The genus Cariota includes 14 species. Features of the genus - monocarpic development - these palms bloom and bear fruit once in a lifetime, then die. On average, the life cycle of a karyote is no more than 20 years, the duration of flowering depends on the number of inflorescences and fruits. Rare specimens live up to 25 years.
- Caryota pungent Caryota urens - or Wine Palm - is sometimes grown in pots and tubs - it is more likely not a home plant, but a greenhouse plant. The trunks of this palm tree are used as a building material, sugar, wine, and sago (palm starch groats) are obtained from the core of the trunk. The palm tree grows in one trunk, in nature it reaches 12-13 m in height, the girth of the trunk of an adult palm is 30-35 cm in diameter. Vai 5-6 m long and about 4 m wide, lobes of leaves of an irregular triangular shape, each 15 cm long and 7-9 cm wide, at the top the leaf is dissected with a deep notch to about the middle. The dimensions of a palm tree at home are about 1.5 m in height, at the top, the crown span is about 80-90 cm.In general, a karyote grows in a bunch, because in a pot we see not a trunk, but several petioles of leaves, but their full length,as in wild specimens, they do not reach 4-5 m.
- Soft caryota Caryota mitis - or fishtail palm, has long conquered the flower markets and window sills of our apartments. The leaves are double-dissected-pinnate, each segment has shallowly ragged edges, the traditional shape of a fish tail, the middle is longer, sometimes forming a sharp wedge. At home, this palm tree usually does not exceed 1.5 meters, in nature - 8-9 m, and all the vegetation on the top, the trunk bears the remains of old dried leaves. At a young age, palms form a shrub, not a tree, i.e. does not grow in one trunk, but forms many root suckers and a fairly dense bush.
- Caryota obtusa (synonym for giant Caryota gigas) is a species native to northeastern India and northern Thailand, growing high in the mountains (from 1000 to 1500 m above sea level). As a home plant, it began to be grown relatively recently. After sowing seeds (they germinate quickly), it reaches 80-90 cm in a year. This palm tree is gigantic in size (13-15 m in height), and the trunk is up to 75 cm in diameter. It has extremely dense wood that is difficult to cut even with good saws. But for us this is not important - the decorativeness of the karyote is dull in the leaves - the double-pinnate fronds consist of many leaves, which are shaped like a fan, with a wavy edge. The leaf petioles are covered with black fibers, i.e. an almost black trunk grows. By the way, the fruits of this palm are very irritating and toxic (they contain oxalates).This species is easy to confuse with soft karyota, the main difference is in the structure of leaf segments: in a soft karyote, triangular wavy leaves form an acute angle in the middle, a wedge, and in a karyote, blunt leaves in shape with an even, somewhat beveled edge, the upper segment of the leaf is dissected, in a young leaf forms almost a circle.
At home, caryota can bloom if there is enough space, light, not too hot (cool in winter) and a lot of fresh air. At the same time, the flowering of the potted caryote lasts on average 1 year, after which the palm tree quickly dries up and dies.
Temperature: moderate throughout the year, the optimal summer temperature is 18-22 ° C, preferably not higher than 24 ° C (on hot days, move the pot to a cool place, for example, make it from the windowsill to the floor). The winter minimum for karyota in a pot is + 13 ° C, however, if you are an experienced florist, you can easily leave the karyote in an insulated pot on the balcony, up to a minimum temperature of + 3 ° C (no watering, a pot in foam rubber or a bucket of sawdust). If the palm tree still grows at higher temperatures, in a room with central heating, then it must be sprayed and protected from the hot air of the batteries. Ideally, your palm tree will be happier in the summer in the garden, and in the winter on the insulated balcony or winter garden.
Lighting: a bright place, Kariota needs to be shaded from the sun's rays (she is afraid not of burns, but of the heat). But do not place this palm tree in a shaded place - it is not so shade tolerant. In winter, the lighting should be very good, if necessary, put a fluorescent lamp (fluorescent or LED) next to the palm tree.
Watering: The frequency of watering the karyota depends on the temperature at which the plant is kept. But, in general, watering should be uniform, abundant in spring and summer, after drying the top layer of the earth. In autumn and winter, watering is moderate, the earth must have time to dry out completely. With a cold wintering of about 5-15 ° C, the periods of dry content increase - the longer the palm tree remains dry, the lower the temperature.
Fertilizer: carried out from May to September weekly, with a special fertilizer for palms or any liquid fertilizer for indoor plants.
Air humidity: Cariota loves humid air, so it is not bad to spray it in the morning and evening if the air humidity is below 50%. This is especially important if the caryote is kept in a room with central heating; if the humidity is below 40%, put a humidifier.
Transplantation: the palm tree does not like transplantation very much, therefore, it is transplanted only when the roots fill the entire pot or tub, and begin to crawl out of the container, i.e. after about 2-3 years - young plants, after a few years - old ones. Soil - 2 parts of light turf, 2 parts of humus, 1 part of peat, 2 parts of fine gravel (fraction 2-3 mm), a little charcoal. At the bottom of the bucket or tub, drainage is at least 5 cm.When transplanting, walk with a knife along the edge of the pot in order to separate the earthen ball from its walls and injure the roots less. When planting, do not tamp the earth with your hands - it will gradually settle from irrigation, and you can add fresh soil.
Reproduction of karyote seeds
In seed shops, you can buy caryote palm seeds and grow them on your windowsill. When buying seeds, pay attention to the date - caryote seeds strongly lose their germination after 2-3 months of storage.
It is better to sow at the end of February. Can be sown in peat pots or directly into separate pots with a diameter of 8-10 cm. Prepare the soil: 2 parts of leafy soil, 1 part of turf, 1 part of vermiculite. Sterilize it in the microwave or oven.
Caryote seeds are very dense, tough, they must be filed with a nail file. But do this carefully to thin the seed coat layer without damaging the kernel. Then soak the seeds for a couple of days in room temperature water, preferably adding a growth stimulant (such as zircon or seedling).
Embed caryota palm seeds to a depth of 1.5-2 cm, moisten the soil and place in a warm place. It is advisable to use heating so that the temperature is 28-30 ° C - you can put pots or a bowl of seeds on a battery, you can use a heating pad or use a shoe dryer. Attention - make sure that no water gets on the appliance!
It will take a long time to wait for the emergence of seedlings - on average a month, perhaps up to three months.
When the seeds germinate, rearrange them in a bright place, shading from 12 to 15 o'clock in the afternoon during sundial. Water sparingly - waterlogging is detrimental to palm seedlings, as is overdrying. Keep warm for the first week, but gradually lower the temperature to 22-24 ° C.
For more information on cultivating and growing palm trees see Palms
To avoid waterlogging the soil, do not plant a palm tree in a pot that is too large - the earth will sour, nutrients are poorly absorbed, the leaves turn yellow, the roots rot.
This karyota suffered from frost, despite the fact that in nature the temperature in the mountains drops very low, temperatures below + 5 ° C can lead to hypothermia of the roots, and below 0 ° C - to frostbite of the leaves.
When transplanting, add a baking powder - vermiculite, pieces of pine bark, coconut fiber to the ground.
The caryote palm grows vigorously at home and reaches about 1 m in height. Such a plant requires nutritious soil, ordinary land for palm trees (from the store) consists mainly of peat and is not very suitable, by and large.
Add turf or well-rotted compost to the soil when replanting. After transplanting, do not feed for at least 1.5-2 months.
Mite on palm
Spider mite - appears on indoor flowers at any time of the year, is carried with the wind or other plants. Initially, small discolored spots appear on the leaves, if you look at the lumen of the leaf, you can see punctures. Gradually, the leaves turn yellow and dry out. With severe damage in internodes and on the back of the leaves, a cobweb is visible.
Control measures: rinse the plant in soapy water - beat the foam with a sponge and wipe each leaf, or dilute the soapy solution and rinse the entire crown (covering the ground with a bag). You can leave the soap on for 20-30 minutes. Then rinse the foliage with hot water, temperature - 40-45 degrees, the hand feels hot. It is better to use green potash soap, which is sold in flower shops.
Repeat the hot shower in 5-7 days twice more.
You can use drugs such as Fitoverm, Aktofit, Agravertin, Akarin - at the rate of 10 ml per 1 liter of water, or Vertimek (1 ml per 1 liter of water). The treatment must be repeated after 3-5 days - if the weather is hot or warm (26-24 degrees) and after 7 days, if the air temperature is 20 degrees and below, since these preparations do not kill tick eggs.
You can alternate between hot showers and acaricide treatments.
The preparations Sunmite or Taurus are very effective at the rate of 1 g per 1 liter of water - a single treatment with thorough wetting of the crown destroys adult pests and non-feeding stages (eggs).