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The Gesnerian family. Homeland Gloxinia Andes and South America, one species is found in Central America and the West Indies. In total, only three gloxinia species and one interspecific hybrid have official status. Gloxinia is not found in Russia as a houseplant. What we used to call Gloxinia in fact - Sinningia ada is a popular houseplant, was originally described and cultivated as Gloxinia ada (Speciosa), and is still widely known by flower lovers as Gloxinia. Actually, it's time to get used to using the real botanical names.
The difference between Sinningia and Gloxinia plants is that Sinningia form a tuber, and Gloxinia form rhizome plants, they have a scaly underground rhizome, similar to the rhizome of begonia. True species of Gloxinia are very rare and cannot be bought in a regular flower shop.
But what types of gloxinia are known:
Gloxinia perennial Gloxinia perennis is a herb with an underground scaly rhizome. Stem erect, glabrous and reaches a height of 60-100 cm. Leaves are opposite, glabrous with noticeable venation, obovate, narrowed at the end; the petiole is short, about 1 cm. The stems and petioles are green with reddish stripes, the veins on the leaf are light green. The stems gradually turn into a peduncle. The flowers are bell-shaped, drooping, pale purple or violet lavender with a slight mint aroma. The corolla tube is about 4 cm long. The flowering period is from mid-summer to mid-autumn. The fruit is an elliptical capsule containing numerous small seeds. Homeland - Central and South America, mainly in the Andes. Gloxinia perennial grows in small or wide colonies on rocks, along river banks, or in sparse wet undergrowth.Has a pronounced dormant period in winter. This type of gloxinia is grown at home not so often, since seeds and cuttings can only be obtained from collectors of Gesneriaceae.
Gloxinia perennis photo Rogelio Quinatoa
Leaves Gloxinia perennial Gloxinia perennis
Flower Gloxinia perennial Gloxinia perennis
Глоксиния эриноидес Gloxinia erinoides - встречается от Коста-Рики до Боливии. Невысокое травянистое растение с подземным чешуйчатым корневищем и крошечными белыми с бордовым цветами, имеющими выраженный кокосовый аромат. Листья супротивные, продолговатые, суженные к кончику, но не заостренные, а слегка закругленные на конце, длиной 5-9 см. Листья у исходного вида темно-зеленые с бордовыми жилками. Стебли вначале прямостоячие, затем поникающие. Цветонос около 15 см длиной, с кистевидным соцветием. Цветки небольшие, около 1-1,5 см в диаметре, обычно двухцветные - верхние доли венчика красные или бардовые, нижние - белые, цветки похожи по форме на орхидеи-башмачки. Этот вид глоксиний мельче, чем глоксиния многолетняя. Так же выращивается в домашних условиях, причем популярны два сорта: Gloxinia erinoides 'Polo Polo' - с зелеными листьями и салатовыми жилками, стебли в основании красноватые; и Gloxinia erinoides 'Red Satin'- с темно-зелеными листьями в светлую крапинку, черешки, стебли и листья с обратной стороны красноватые (пурпурные) с белым коротким опушением. Синоним - Кёлликерия эриноидес Koellikeria erinoides. Фото глоксинии эриноидес от Scott Zona - американского биолога, натуралиста и коллекционера, автора сотней статей о тропических растениях:
Gloxinia erinoides photos - Scott Zona
Gloxinia erinoides photos - Scott Zona
Gloxinia Dragon Song (Dragonsong) Gloxinia x dragonsong is an interspecific hybrid from Gloxinia erinoides cultivar "Red Satin" and Gloxinia perennis. As you can see, this gloxinia has inherited both maternal and paternal genes:
Gloxinia Dragonsong Gloxinia x dragonsong
Gloxinia Dragonsong - Photo from the showroom in Taipei (China)
Gloxinia xanthophyll Gloxinia xanthophylla is a herbaceous plant native to Ecuador and Peru, at an altitude of about 450-500 m above sea level, in a tropical rain forest in open areas, along clearings. This type of gloxinia has neither a tuber nor a scaly rhizome. In nature, xanthophyll gloxinia is a rather large plant, about 50-60 cm tall, and grown in a pot is much smaller. The shoots are erect at first, then drooping, on average up to 30 cm, the bush has a semi-ampelous shape. The leaves are opposite, oblong-elongated, pointed at the end, with a small-crested edge. Above, the leaves are medium green, the reverse side is gray, with pronounced venation. The flowers are bell-shaped, on long peduncles in racemose inflorescences. The sepals are green with short pubescence, the flowers are snow-white, the corolla tube is about 2 cm long.The fruit is a capsule with numerous seeds. All parts of the plant are covered with short, weak pubescence. This is an extremely rare plant; you will not find it even in the collections of professional Gesneriaceae amateurs. The photos below belong to the Smithsonian Institution (a research and educational institute in the United States), the National Museum of Natural History, the Department of Botany - the specimen was grown in the greenhouses of this institute. Photos are posted for informational purposes only:Department of Botany - the specimen was grown in the greenhouses of this institute. Photos are posted for informational purposes only:Department of Botany - the specimen was grown in the greenhouses of this institute. Photos are posted for informational purposes only:
Gloxinia xanthophyll Gloxinia xanthophylla
Gloxinia xanthophyll Gloxinia xanthophylla
At home, gloxinia can grow in a warm, light room with high air humidity and with the preservation of rhizomes during the rest period in cool and dry conditions.
How to care for gloxinia Severina's story of growing sinningia (gloxinia), a collector's experience.
Temperature: Gloxinia grow well at 22-24 ° C, do not like heat above 28 ° C - in nature at this temperature the humidity is high, and in houses it is too dry, do not forget to open windows for ventilation in summer. For good growth and flowering, daily temperature fluctuations of about 5-6 ° C, but not below 18 ° C, are required. All species have a pronounced dormant period, without which they cannot normally continue to grow and, moreover, bloom. Therefore, from the end of October - November, they need a cool room, where the temperature is in the range of 14-15 ° C, but not lower than 12 ° C.
Lighting: Gloxinia is photophilous, but requires bright, diffused light. Leaves may burn in direct summer sun. Ideal for growing gloxinia east or northwest window. In case of insufficient lighting, flowers should be supplemented with fluorescent or LED lamps for 14-16 hours.
Watering: Gloxinia are watered quite abundantly during growth and flowering, but excessive dampness is destructive for them. When watering, use warm water that does not contain chlorine. With the end of flowering, watering is reduced, since October, very little is watered, the dormant period is practically dry.
Top dressing: One and a half months after transplanting, every two weeks, feed with special fertilizers for Saintpaulias or fertilizers for flowering indoor plants (containing a sufficiently large amount of potassium and phosphorus, little nitrogen), but at a dose half the recommended dose. Gloxinia do not tolerate overfeeding with fertilizers, it is better to underfeed
Air humidity: Gesneriaceae like very humid air, optimally 70-75%. This is not particularly difficult if you place the pots in the terrarium, spreading moist sphagnum moss between them. If there is no greenhouse, then a humidifier should be placed next to the plants.
Transfer: Every year in spring in fresh soil, the pot should not be too spacious - small pots are suitable, as for violets. Perennial gloxinia needs a little more pots - 12-13 cm in diameter, Gloxinia erinoides is miniature, she needs pots about 8 cm in diameter. For planting, use store soil for saintpaulias or a mixture of 2 parts of leafy soil, 1 part of peat (or greenhouse land) and 1 part of river sand. The soil should have a slightly acidic reaction, pH = 5.5 - 6.5. Good drainage is a must. When transplanting, the rhizome is sprinkled with earth.
Reproduction of gloxinia
Gloxinia reproduce by seeds, leafy cuttings, division of the rhizome (bush). The seeds can be found online at the sites of the Gesnerian collectors. They are sown in a mixture of leafy soil and sand (in equal parts), they germinate at a temperature of 24-25 ° C. Fresh seeds have good germination. The seed dish should be covered with glass or foil; it is good to use transparent plastic boxes from cakes or pastries as a mini-greenhouse. Moisten crops by spraying, ventilate 2-3 times a day. As soon as shoots appear, good lighting is required, it is worth putting the greenhouse under fluorescent lamps.
Gloxinia easily propagates by cuttings, a leaf with a heel (a piece of stem). You can root in water, in a glass, like Saintpaulia, or in damp vermiculite in a warm place. First, thin hairy roots appear at the cutting, then a rhizome gradually grows - a scaly rhizome. If it has not grown while the cutting was rooting, it's okay, as soon as the roots form a brush of about 2 cm, they can be planted in small pots or yogurt cups. Young plants especially need moist air and good lighting.