Table of contents:
- Dendrobium care
- Top dressing
- Personal experience
Orchid family. Homeland of dendrobium Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. An extensive genus, numbering about one and a half thousand species.
At home, many natural species and hybrids of dendrobium are widespread, different in color of flowers and shape of bushes. All of them are generally considered to be quite demanding plants to care for.
- Dendrobium noble Dendrobium nobile is a tall plant, up to 1 m tall, with fleshy, jointed stems, thickened at the nodes, with elongated leathery leaves about 10-12 cm long, sitting along the entire shoot. Short peduncles are formed on last year's shoots that have shed their leaves. 2-3 flowers are formed. The petals are white below, pink or lilac at the top. The lip of the flower is whole, funnel-shaped, velvety, white with a large dark purple spot, pink or lilac in the upper part. Wintering at a temperature of 10-14 ° C.
- Dendrobium King Dendrobium kingianum - not a tall plant, stems about 30-40 cm tall, cylindrical, thickened at the bottom and narrowed towards the top. The leaves are predominantly in the upper part of the shoot, oblong in shape and with a two-toothed tip, about 6-8 cm long. The flowers are small, pink, the lip is three-lobed, folded back. The anterior lobe is cordate, with purple stripes and spots and yellowish longitudinal grooves. Wintering at a temperature of 10-11 ° C.
- Dendrobium parishii - has thick, hanging, articulated stems about 30-40 cm long. Sharp, oblong leaves about 10-12 cm long. Flowers are single, 2-3, on leafless stems, ranging in color from pink to purple. The rounded, densely pubescent lip has two dark purple spots. Wintering at a temperature of 12-15 ° C.
- Dendrobium chrysocrepis (golden shoe) Dendrobium chrysocrepis - small bushes, pseudobulbs, on average, about 20 cm long, slightly thickened at the base, each forms three or more leaves about 7 cm long.Flowering comes from old leafless (last year) pseudobulbs. Peduncles are short, with one flower, golden color, 3.5 cm in diameter. The peculiarity of the structure of the flower: a lip in the shape of a shoe, a contrasting orange color, with thick short hairs, served as the name for this species. Wintering is desirable at a temperature of 10-12 ° C.
Dendrobium Nobile, photo: Ananya
Dendrobium Loddigeza, photo: murkymark
Dendrobium Kinga, photo: Max
Dendrobium, based on natural conditions, is an orchid with a pronounced dormant period. Many hybrids are deciduous or, like dendrobium nobile, semi-deciduous, the leaves lose gradually, sometimes through the season. Natural leaf fall occurs gradually, without the formation of dark or black spots. The rhizome must remain strong and healthy. After a successful dormant period, the dendrobium begins flowering, which is slightly shorter than that of the phalaenopsis - about 2 months, and coincides with the dry period, and some time after flowering new growths appear. The main element of care and stimulation of dendrobium flowering is adherence to the irrigation regime, alternation of dry and wet seasons, to a lesser extent - temperature fluctuations. In this case, you can not wait for the end of growth, but finish feeding and reduce watering before the orchid finishes growing, approximately,from the second half of September.
Dendrobium Farmer Dendrobium farmerii
Dendrobium Farmer, photo: Donga
Dendrobium Farmer, photo: Donga
Dendrobiums quite easily adapt to home conditions, tolerate hot weather well, but only with excellent ventilation and high humidity. Orchids grow and thrive best in daytime temperatures between 18 ° C and 24 ° C and 13 ° C-16 ° C at night. Daily temperature fluctuations should be 5-10 ° C. If you have wooden frames on your windows, do not forget that in winter it is always colder on the windowsill than in the room. If the dendrobium spends the summer on the balcony, focus on the minimum temperature limit of 12 ° C. The rest period should ideally be cold (10-12 ° C and dry), and should be approximately 3 months. It is convenient at home if it falls between October and January, and you have a warm and light balcony. But dendrobium can do well with a warmer rest period, around 14-16 ° C,with occasional watering (about once every 3 weeks). It is not the temperature that is more important here, but the light - dendrobiums should not be put for the winter in a shaded place, it should always be light.
Dendrobium needs plenty of light throughout the year. Want the exact numbers: in the 25,000 to 40,000 lux range. The ideal place is a very bright diffused (openwork) light. This can be the sill of the southeast window, a very light east window (which is not shaded by trees or houses from the street), behind a curtain of tulle or mesh near the south and southwest window. All other windows: northern, or any other, shaded from the street, will not allow dendrobium to grow and develop well. If you have dark windows, use lamps - supplement the orchid with fluorescent or LED lamps.
Watering and humidity
Dendrobium cannot be called moisture-loving either, it likes to be completely dry before re-watering, especially during the cold season. Frequency of watering dendrobium: during active growth (usually in spring and summer), every 2-4 days, depending on the temperature, provided that everything inside the pot is dry after a maximum of 36 hours. During rest, watering is completely stopped if it is colder than + 12 ° C. If it is 12 to 14 ° C, you can occasionally drop a drop so that the bulbs do not wrinkle too much.
The water requirements are simple: only soft and warm. You need to water in the morning, so that by the evening, when the temperature drops, everything has time to dry out. If you have hard water in your area, use a reverse osmosis filter or aquarium preparations (water tests, hardness regulators). You can also freeze water and use thawed, but warmed up. If the water in your area is soft, just settle or filter it with a regular filter to get rid of chlorine and rust.
When watering by immersion, do not keep the dendrobium in water for more than 10 minutes. Remember that watering does not compensate for too low air humidity, but can lead to root rot. Therefore, always empty the sump. To prevent dendrobium from suffering from dryness, it can be placed on a tray filled with water or wet pebbles. The relative humidity should not be below 40%. Frequent spraying is not allowed when water accumulates in internodes (blot it with a paper towel).
The choice of fertilizers for orchids is quite wide, any balanced in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in equal proportions, for example NPK 20-20-20, will suit us. The feeding schemes are different:
- If you have only bark in the substrate and a lot of inert (non-nutritive) components, it is preferable to underestimate the dose and feed it weekly than in the full dose according to the instructions. Take a weak concentration, 1/4 of the norm, dilute in water for irrigation.
- If your dendrobium is planted in a mixture of bark, peat or leafy soil, then fertilize once every 2 weeks, in full dosage, water the rest of the time with plain water.
To prevent salinization of the soil, once a month rinse the substrate in the pot: to do this, put the pot without a tray in the bathroom and water it over the surface of the substrate (not leaves) from a warm shower for about 2-3 minutes. And then pour 1-2 liters of boiled water.
All fertilizing is permissible only during the period of active growth for healthy plants. We do not feed the sick and the weak! Excessive feeding provokes necrosis and rotting of bulbs and roots. Frequent feeding stimulates growth and inhibits flowering.
Dendrobiums like small pots, not cramped and not loose, plastic or clay - it doesn't matter, it is important that there are excellent drain holes for water, and in shape: the height of the pot is slightly larger than the width. Dendrobium transplantation is carried out only when the need arises: the plant sticks out, falls out of the pot, the substrate is too washed out, has become rotten, salt deposition has appeared, mold has formed, and insecticide irrigation was often carried out. Roughly transplant every 2-3 years.
Substrate: bark and akadama (clay lumps for bonsai).
Dendrobium Jenkins jenkinsii grows beautifully on a block.
The total acidity of the substrate should be in the range of pH 5.5-6.5. Only with such acidity of the soil and solution during irrigation, all nutrients are normally absorbed.
The substrate is pieces of pine bark, large plump cubes, about 2-3 cm, forest moss (not sphagnum, but the one that is hard as wire), pieces of foam plastic or coconut chips. Important: the condition for the selection of components and particle size is such that a pot filled with roots and substrate must have many voids, making up at least 30% of the volume. That is, 1/3 of the entire space in the pot is air pockets that help to avoid root asphyxia after watering, and ensure quick drying of the roots.
If over time the substrate has caked, crumbled, and the air pockets have decreased, thickened - a transplant is necessary. Do not overuse the addition of sphagnum moss when planting dendrobiums - it is too moisture-consuming component, delays the drying of the roots. On blocks, sphagnum moss should be fixed next to the roots, not under them!
Many species of dendrobium grow well on blocks: Dendrobium Christy Dendrobium christyanum, Dendrobium Loddigesa Dendrobium loddigesii, Dendrobium gold shoe Dendrobium chrysocrepis and others. As a block, you can use a large piece of cork, a beautiful driftwood for aquariums, or a peeled pine root.
Reproduction of dendrobiums
Dendrobium is propagated by dividing the bush when there is something to share. In order for the delenka to take root faster, grow and bloom sooner, at least 3-4 matured pseudobulbs must be separated. And such a bush still needs to be grown. Separation of a bush with less than three pseudobulbs is impractical. The daughter plant is grown in the same way as the mother plant. You need to plant it in a small pot commensurate with the roots, do not water the first 3-4 days.
Growing dendrobium from personal experience
Anyanya: I grow dendrobiums on the balcony, the side is southeast, even more south. The balcony is glazed and the heat there reaches 35 ° C during the day, and drops to 10 ° C at night. I water it once every 5 days. Dendrobium - care instructions
Ira: For dendrobium nobile, letting in a baby instead of a flower is the nicest thing if all the conditions for proper maintenance, which must include drying, have not been met! If you have kids growing up, it means that something is wrong with watering, temperature, air: do not forget that dendrobium comes from places of moderately cold climate. In addition, he needs fresh air - to the balcony, to the garden.
Yamira: I grow Dendrobium Loddigesa on the southwest window without shading. All summer until autumn, it is regularly watered and fed. Closer to the middle of autumn, I began to reduce watering and feeding, so that together with winter, we began a period of rest. About once a month, or even less often, I still watered it. Flowering came in March.