Table of contents:
- Dieffenbachia types
- Dieffenbachia care
- How to transplant dieffenbachia
- Dieffenbachia propagation
Dieffenbachia amoena Dieffenbachia lovely
Aroid family. Homeland of Dieffenbachia South America (Colombia, Peru, Panama, Venezuela, Guyana, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica). There are more than 50 species in nature.
- Dieffenbachia types
- Dieffenbachia care
- Dieffenbachia transplant
- Dieffenbachia propagation
Dieffenbachia is a straight-stemmed tree-like plant with variegated large elongated-oval leaves. Plant sap is poisonous. Dieffenbachia in nature can grow up to 3 m, but gradually the lower part of the trunk becomes bare and the plant loses its decorative appeal. At home, dieffenbachia grows on average about 1.5-1.8 m, rarely blooms. In fact, the taxonomy of Dieffenbachia is too confusing, and it will be difficult even for a professional, due to the variability of species, to obtain interspecific hybrids and various varieties. It should also be noted that many types of dieffenbachia require quite frequent renewal - on average, after three years, if grown in an apartment. Since after this time they usually grow to the ceiling. Then the top of the plant is cut off and rooted, and what is left is either thrown away or left for reproduction.
Dieffenbachia is widespread in the southern states of the United States, widespread in the tropical Pacific islands (Cook Islands, Micronesia, Hawaii, Fiji, Tahiti, Palau, Samoa, etc.), and in some regions the plant behaves invasively like a weed.
- Dieffenbachia Seguine Dieffenbachia seguine is a plant with a thick, fleshy, juicy stem and wide, lobed leaves. On average, the leaf length in an adult specimen is 40-50 cm and about 15 cm wide, somewhat narrowed at the end. Leaf plates have pronounced venation, about 9-15 lateral veins. In the original species, the leaves are pure green or with a small variegated pattern. On the basis of it, many hybrids and varieties have been bred, which differ in the size and shape of the leaf - more elongated lanceolate or wide, as well as a pattern on the leaves (large or small stripes, spots, marbling). Synonyms: Dieffenbachia spotted (painted) Dieffenbachia maculata, Dieffenbachia painted by Dieffenbachia picta.
- Dieffenbachia Bause Dieffenbachia x bausei - with oval yellowish-green leaves about 30-35 cm long. The drawing of the leaf is marble, with white dots. The name has no official status; some naturalists believe it is a form of the Dieffenbachia Seguin.
- Dieffenbachia Oerstedi Dieffenbachia oerstedii - with oval-pointed or elongated-cordate leaves about 30-35 cm long. The leaf is pure green, the central vein stands out, contrasting in color - light green. Sometimes light specks come across. This species is native to Costa Rica and Guatemala.
Dieffenbachia grade 'Exotica' Exotic
Dieffenbachia grade 'Rudolph Roers' Rudolph Roers
Dieffenbachia sort of 'Camille' Camilla
Dieffenbachia cultivar 'Vesuvius' Vesuvius (very similar to aglaonemu)
Dieffenbachia sort of 'Star Bright' Bright Star
Dieffenbachia sort of 'Triumph' Triumph
You might be surprised, but sometimes Dieffenbachia grow well at home without any care other than watering. There are cases when strong Dieffenbachia trees with good leaves, without spots or chlorosis, grow for many years without transplanting or feeding. For such unpretentiousness, Dieffenbachia are loved to be used in landscaping hotel foyers, recreations of kindergartens and hospitals. But not all varieties of dieffenbachia seguin (painted) differ in unpretentious care - some are quite capricious, require very good illumination and high-quality water for irrigation.
Dieffenbachia is thermophilic, the optimum temperature is 22-24 ° C. In winter, it is slightly lower - about 18 ° C, minimum 16 ° C. Plants rot and die at temperatures below 10 ° C. Does not tolerate drafts. But they grow well in the fresh air - on the balcony or in the garden, if you place the pots in light partial shade and in a place protected from the wind. Of all the species, Dieffenbachia maculata is the most unpretentious to temperature fluctuations.
Questions about growing Dieffenbachia - in the section Frequently asked questions about plants.
Dieffenbachia need shading in summer, good lighting in winter. In a too dark place, the leaves become smaller, and the plant loses its decorative appeal. It will grow well under the protection of a tulle curtain near an east or west window. Dieffenbachia varieties with light leaves, large white specks, such as 'Star Bright', like very good lighting, with some direct light in the morning or evening. Small plants grow ideally on the east or northwest windowsill. But when the bushes outgrow, do not fit on the windowsill, they have to be placed in the room. And here you need to focus on the behavior of the plant - if the stem (trunk) of Dieffenbachia grows strictly vertically, everything is in order, there is enough light. The only thing that is needed is to turn the pot 180 degrees about once a month,so that the crown has an even shape.
If your dieffenbachia trunk does not grow strictly vertically, but is inclined, even slightly, towards the window, this is a sure sign of a lack of light. In this case, it is not enough to turn the pot with different sides, you need to arrange additional lighting. Use LED or fluorescent lamps, preferably elongated, ribbons, or ordinary candles or balls, but at different heights.
Medium abundant from spring to late summer. What does this mean - in dieffenbachia, especially a large one, a large leaf mass and a huge evaporation of water. Those. she needs a lot of moisture. But at the same time, the root system of dieffenbachia is not too powerful when compared with other plants, for example, ficuses. With excessive watering, the roots easily rot. Therefore, you need to water a lot, but the soil should dry out no longer than 3 days. If the soil in the pot dries longer, then the soil is too moisture-consuming, it is necessary to add baking powder (more on this below). In winter, at home, it is usually warm all winter long and watering can be no different from summer. If dieffenbachia is not at home, but for example, on a heated balcony or a winter garden, where it is cooler, watering is significantly reduced. The general rule for watering in spring and summer is that by the next watering, the land should dry out in the upper third of the pot.In winter, dry out almost completely.
For watering dieffenbachia, it is advisable to use soft water, like many aroids, it does not tolerate chlorine and fluorine in water. Watering with hard water when soil salinity occurs, the appearance of a salt crust on the surface of the soil often leads to tissue necrosis - browning of the tips and edges of leaves.
In the period from May to August, top dressing with complex fertilizer, every two weeks. Dieffenbachia is not fed from September to February. With a lack of nutrients, the trunk from below is exposed much faster, but this fact is not an indicator of nutritional deficiency - for dieffenbachia, a gradual loss of the lower leaves is characteristic.
Dieffenbachia loves very humid air, but at home it adapts to air humidity of about 35-45%. From May to October, you can not spray, except on the hottest days. But you need to wipe or wash the leaves for hygienic purposes - wash off the dust. But with the beginning of the heating season, additional care is required: it is necessary to isolate dieffenbachia from the dry hot air of the batteries in any way - rearrange it from the window, or cover the battery with a damp towel, turn on the humidifier. If the pot is on a windowsill, make sure that the dieffenbachia leaves do not hang over its edge and do not get a direct stream of hot dry air.
How to transplant dieffenbachia
Dieffenbachia is transplanted annually in the spring - the best time for transplanting is at the end of April. Previously, it was believed that nutrient soil from a mixture of sod (4 parts), leaf (1 part), peat soil (1 part) and sand (1 part), a weakly acidic reaction, was suitable for growing dieffenbachia. But with the experience of cultivation, I realized that it is better to grow dieffenbachia in soil, in composition close to that on which they grow in nature:
- light sod land and peat (1: 1),
- light turf soil, peat and vermiculite (1: 1: 1).
That is, the soil for dieffenbachia must have good water-holding ability and at the same time, it must pass well and quickly evaporate water. Can be planted in universal soil from the store (for example, Terra Vita). The problem is that all these soils quickly give up all the nutrients to a powerful plant and an annual transplant is a necessity. Many dieffenbachias, especially varietals, grow slowly. The entire increase occurs mainly in the spring and early summer. Some quite quickly, adding 50 cm in height per year. Therefore, they can be experienced twice, the first time at the end of February, the second in July.
Due to the fact that these aroids grow rather large, transplanting is difficult, it is difficult to pull almost a whole "tree" out of a pot or tub. In this case, it is advisable to replace the top layer of the earth - remove as much soil as it can freely remove, without damaging the roots. It would be nice to add some charcoal to the soil. At the bottom of the pot, be sure to put a drainage from expanded clay or pieces of foam.
Reproduction of Dieffenbachia - in the section Popular indoor plants
You can increase the collection of tropical beauties by cutting off the trunk of 5-7 cm, which are rooted with soil heating at 30 ° C. It is more convenient to do this in February and March, when the bowl with light peat soil (it must be sterilized in the microwave) is put on the battery. And so that the rooted is not dark - direct a light bulb (fluorescent with a conventional base) to the wiring. Rooting takes place within 1.5 months. Pieces of the trunk must be cut off from healthy shoots that do not decay, sprinkle the cuts with crushed coal, keep the soil in a constantly moist, but not damp state, you do not need to cover with a bag.
Some types of dieffenbachia give daughter shoots, which are cut and rooted. There are varieties that have a bush shape, such as the Dieffenbachia variety Vesuvius, they can be propagated by dividing the bush. But the most common method of reproduction is by apical cuttings, it is also used when the trunk is very bare from below, and it is necessary to rejuvenate the plant.
The cut off top of the shoot can be rooted in water (with the addition of activated carbon) or vermiculite. It is important to cut the largest lower leaves from the cutting to reduce the evaporating surface of the cutting. Cuttings root better in spring - early summer. Place it in a warm place, not lower than 22 ° C, cover from direct sunlight. Change the water as it gets dirty (every two days). After the roots grow at least 5 cm from the cutting, they can be planted. It is desirable that the rooted plant should not be planted on hot days (no higher than 26 ° C). For the first two weeks, the pot should be placed in a transparent bag, which should not be tied, but simply spread up. The plant must be watered. Top dressing should be started no earlier than 1.5 months later.