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Myrtle family. Homeland - mainly South America (Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil), Mexico, found in Australia and New Caledonia and on the island of Madagascar. There are about 1000 species of evergreen trees or shrubs in total. The genus is named after Eugene of Savoy Eugen von Savoyen - the famous commander of the Roman Empire. Sometimes the name of the genus is translated in literature as Evgenia (this is how the first letter sounds in the original), but in Russian the usual sound of Evgenia.
Eugenia one-flowered Eugenia uniflora is a tree native to the east coast of South America, in nature 5-8 m in height. Leaves are opposite, oval-lanceolate, pointed at the end, 4-5 cm long, dark green above and lighter on the back. Young leaves are bronze in color. The flowers are white, on long stalks, solitary, axillary, usually covering the shoots from the middle to the top. Corolla is four-petaled, about 4 cm in diameter, many white long stamens with yellow anthers, attract bees. The fruit is a ribbed berry about 2.5 cm in diameter (at home, about 1.5 cm), as it ripens, it changes color from orange to maroon, each fruit contains no more than two seeds. Begins to bear fruit for 2-3 years when grown from seed.This species has several popular names - Pitanga Pitanga (which means "red" in the native language of the indigenous population of Brazil - according to the color of the fruit), Surinamese cherry.
Plants are grown as bonsai, as Eugenia single-flowered lends itself well to crown formation, branches very well and is suitable for many styles.
Pitanga has edible fruits, the indigenous people of South America and Mexico have used them for many centuries to prepare tonic and alcoholic beverages, cooked jams, jellies, made candied fruits and ice cream from them. Such widespread use prompted scientists to develop new varieties that differ in fruit size, chemical composition, and sugar content of the fruit.
В качестве комнатного растения, в том числе потенсай и бонсай, выращивают так же Евгению бразильскую Eugenia brasiliensis, более известную как Грумичама Grumichama. В природе это высокое дерево, достигающее 9 м в высоту. Хорошо ветвится, листья овальные или эллиптические, заостренные на конце, крупнее, чем у Евгении одноцветковой, 8-12 см в длину и около 4-5 в ширину, плоды темно-фиолетовые со вкусом вишни, около 2,5 см в диаметре. У себя на родине рассматривается в качестве исчезающего вида, который требуется взять под надзор. Растет довольно медленно, хорошо формируется обрезкой. Кстати, листья и кора Евгении бразильской содержат эфирные масла и некоторые вещества, полезные при различных заболеваниях. В частности настой из листьев (10 г сухих на 300 мл кипятка) в Бразилии применяют при ревматизме, как вяжущее и мочегонное средство.
Eugenia Victoriana Eugenia victoriana - the name of the species was dictated by the surprisingly large size of the fruits - the largest of all Eugene species - almost 10 cm in diameter. The plant blooms for 3-4 years, forms bright orange, sour taste, very fragrant fruits. The local population of the countries of South America uses these fruits to prepare fermented soft drinks (like our kvass). The leaves of this species are long, elliptical, 10-12 cm long and 2.5-3 cm wide, but the plant itself in nature is much lower than other species - it forms a branched shrub up to 3 m in height.
In addition to these species, other species were also grown as indoor bonsai, for example, Eugene mustache flower or Eugene myrtle leaf. But, over the past decade, serious changes have taken place in the taxonomy of plants, associated with the development of such a science as genetics, which makes it possible to determine the difference and similarity between plants at the cellular level. Therefore, nowadays many plants have changed their names, and not only species, generic, but some have even changed their families (see The Plantl list).
- The species formerly known as Eugenia antennae Eugenia cauliflora no longer belongs to the genus Eugenia Eugenia, but now it is Pliny Peruvian Plinia peruviana (myrtle).
- The species formerly known as Eugenia myriophylla no longer belongs to the genus Eugenia Eugenia, but is now Blepharocalyx myriophyllus (myrtle). It's scary to say - this genus doesn't even have a correct Russian translation! Blepharocalix - almost monotonous with the name of the disease, I will not name, the genus has only 4 species.
- The species, formerly known as Eugenia aromatica or clove tree, no longer belongs to the genus Eugenia Eugenia, but now it is Syzygium aromaticum (myrtle).
- The species formerly known as Eugenia jambos Eugenia jambos, or pink apple, no longer belongs to the genus Eugenia Eugenia, but is now Syzygium yambos Syzygium jambos.
- The species, formerly known as Eugenia Javan Eugenia javanica, or Jambu Semarang, Javanese or waxy apple, no longer belongs to the genus Eugenia Eugenia, now it is the Syzygium Samarangen Syzygium samarangense (myrtle).
- The species formerly known as Eugenia aquatic Eugenia aqueum, or aquatic rose apple, no longer belongs to the genus Eugenia Eugenia, now it is Syzygium aquatic Syzygium aqueum (myrtle).
Evgeniya - home care
Temperature: normal room temperature in summer, moderate is preferable. In winter, cool content (with limited watering), for most species 15-17 ° C. Despite the fact that under natural conditions, Evgenia is quite cold-resistant, when grown in a pot, the temperature around her should never fall below + 8 ° C, but traditionally a winter minimum of 12 ° C. Eugenia Brazilian is more thermophilic than other species, it winters well at 18-20 ° C. Evgenia, like other myrtle, does not like sudden changes in temperature, cold draft. When it comes to cold wintering, we always mean the insulation of the pot. Cold wintering in a small bonsai pot is not allowed - the plant will dry out and overcool. If you have a bonsai, the rest period should be between 15-17 ° C for any species. Old plants in large pots need to be insulatedputting it in a wide box with dry sawdust or wrapping the pot with foam rubber.
Lighting: Evgenia is photophilous, she needs a bright place when the sun hits the leaves in the morning or evening. Shading may only be required during the hottest hours of the day, from 11 am to 3 pm. Preferably the southeast window, not shaded from the street, even on the east window, the intensity of sunlight is too low. On the south and south-west windows it can be very hot on sunny days, the soil in pots dries out quickly, the leaves burn out (turn red).
Watering: plentiful from spring to autumn, after watering the soil should dry out in the upper half of the pot, watering should be especially carefully monitored if Eugene is grown as a pre-bonsai or bonsai in a bowl. In this case, check the soil daily, if it is dry to the touch at a depth of 2-2.5 cm (one phalanx of a finger), then water it. If not already, check in 6-8 hours. In winter, Eugene is watered less often, but immediately after the soil is completely dry. Plants planted in bowls are watered abundantly from a watering can (several times until the soil is evenly moistened), or by immersion for 5-10 minutes in a basin with lukewarm (not cold) water. They use soft boiled water, Evgenia does not tolerate hard water.
Evgenia does not tolerate strong overdrying, sheds leaves. But it also does not tolerate systematic waterlogging. In general, she likes the watering to be uniform, i.e. there were no leaps from overdrying to too abundant watering. The Eugene one-flowered species is more sensitive to overflow than other species, it should be watered after making sure that the soil is dry enough.
Eugenia is one of the best plants for bonsai (pre-bonsai) formation.
Fertilizer: from March to August, Evgenia, planted in an ordinary pot, is fed with a complex fertilizer for decorative leafy plants, every two weeks, using a half dose. If the plant is in a small bowl, then feeding is carried out every two weeks during the period of intensive growth, and once every 4-5 weeks in winter, a special fertilizer for bonsai is used.
Air humidity: Regular spraying in the hot season - 2-3 times a day with distilled (or boiled) water. You can place the pot on a wide pallet with damp pebbles. If there are no hot batteries nearby and the weather is not too hot (above 30), then it is not necessary to spray, Evgenia's leaves look like ficus leaves, dense enough, leathery enough to put up with some dryness of the air. Ideally, a humidity of 40-50% is preferred.
Transplantation: adult plants are traditionally carried out every two years, young ones annually. But if the soil begins to saline (white or reddish bloom on the surface), it is necessary to transplant the plant or replace the top layer of soil in the pot. The soil should be slightly acidic, pH 5.5-6.5. Approximate composition: 1 part turf, 1 part leafy land, 1 part humus, 1 part sand. Evgenia loves slightly acidic soil, does not tolerate lime in the soil. When transplanting bonsai or potensai, root pruning is often done. But with pruning the root system, Evgenia needs to be more careful, some species tolerate pruning of roots very poorly, freeze in growth, shed leaves. Therefore, carry out this procedure only when necessary. After transplanting, and even more so cutting the roots, it is advisable to put the plant for the first time (5-6 days) in a shaded place.Never replant freshly purchased plants that have been moved from a cool winter to a room, or vice versa, those that are going to be moved to rest. Do not transplant on hot summer days.
Personal experience, burg: my soil for eugene is simple and universal, it consists of only two components: a coconut briquette soaked in 5 liters of water, half-and-half (by volume) with perlite (it is highly desirable to agitate perlite under running water from the dust fraction in a fine-mesh colander). By mixing 5 liters of the indicated components, you get all the same 5 liters, but already an ideal substrate. It has no nutrients, it is a rational compromise between conventional soil and hydroponics, therefore it requires a systematic application of a solution of liquid fertilizers. But everything in it grows well and there can be no "bays", since the mixture is quite stable for a long time (2-3 years).
Pruning: Eugene can be pruned in spring and summer (March to October) by shortening the shoots by 1-2 pairs of leaves. If possible, on thick branches, process the cuts with garden pitch. Eugene can be molded into almost any bonsai style. You can also shape the direction of the branches with wire, having previously protected the bark on them from damage. The branches bend well, but the growth rates usually do not allow keeping the wire on them for more than 3 months.
Reproduction: cuttings, seeds (germination is 3-4 weeks) and air layering. In the spring, cuttings about 10 cm long are cut and rooted in water or wet vermiculite.