Monstera Monstera - Species, Care, Watering, Transplanting, Pests, Growing Problems

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Monstera Monstera - Species, Care, Watering, Transplanting, Pests, Growing Problems
Monstera Monstera - Species, Care, Watering, Transplanting, Pests, Growing Problems
Video: Monstera Monstera - Species, Care, Watering, Transplanting, Pests, Growing Problems
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monstera
monstera

Aroid family. The homeland of the monstera is East India and South America (Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Bolivia, Brazil). Monstera is a beautiful evergreen plant belonging to the epiphytic lianas. This is one of the most common indoor plants, previously ranked among the philodendrons, relatively recently identified by scientists as a separate genus. 38 species and about 10 varieties are registered. Some of the known species belong to other genera, for example, previously Monstera pertusa Monstera perforated - this is Rafidophora perforated or punctured Rhaphidophora pertusa.

Monster species

Vine shoots in natural conditions reach about 20 meters in length, leaning on the trunks of tall palms or clinging to rocks with a huge number of aerial roots. Monsters live mainly in humid equatorial foggy forests. Leaves are asymmetric, oblong or ovate-elliptical, adults - perforated or pinnately incised as a result of the death of some cells, on very long petioles. Young leaves of the monster are always whole, usually closely pressed against the stems, in some species holes appear when the leaf plate reaches a length of 10 cm, in others when 15-20 cm. In the petioles, the leaves form, as a rule, a long sheath, firmly covering the stem. Flowers are bisexual, axillary, formed in the nodes. Cover of inflorescences of white or cream color, boat-shaped, inside - yellow-green cob, cylindrical,slightly shorter bedspreads. The fruit of the monstera is a berry, it is rarely formed at home.

Most often, the following types of monsters are grown at home:

  • Monstera is a gourmet Monstera deliciosa that has several varieties. Young leaves are whole, perforated with age, and then completely cut (perforated). In nature, the leaf size reaches 60 cm, if grown in a spacious room near a light window, then in old specimens they are about 50-60 cm.This species has many synonyms - attractive, delicious, delicious monstera.
  • Monstera gourmet "Variegata" Monstera deliciosa variegata - has leaves with cream or white stripes or spots, sometimes taking on marbling.
  • Monstera oblique (unequal) Monstera obliqua is a more compact type of monstera, has leaves of an asymmetric shape with oblong holes, and not cut, like in a delicacy, the leaf plate itself is slightly wrinkled, embossed, which makes the leaves look especially impressive. It also forms many aerial roots and needs support.
  • Monstera dubious (monstera dubia) Monstera dubia is a distinctive feature - young juvenile leaves are variegated with a silvery pattern between the veins, very similar to the leaves of Painted Scindapsus. The mature leaves are green and perforated.

Is it possible to keep a monster at home

Some people wonder - why can't you keep a monster at home? Of course you can, this wonderful plant has more positive properties, judge for yourself, proven facts:

  • Pros: Monstera purifies the air and humidifies it, and very significantly, due to the large leaf mass. Optimization of the microclimate activates brain activity, breathes easier.
  • Cons: monster juice is poisonous, it is necessary to keep away from small children and properly handle the plant (wash your hands after transplanting and pruning).

Folk omens (unproven versions): a delicious (attractive) monster should not be kept in the bedroom, as if it sucks energy from the sleeping people at night. At the same time, another belief says that a monstera in a house is able to smooth out conflicts, neutralize a person's "vampirism" and filter negative emotions. In some countries of Latin America, there is a sign: if you have a headache, sit next to the monster and this will greatly alleviate the condition.

Iplants.ru tip: monstera is ideal for living rooms and other spacious rooms, and brings cleanliness, freshness, comfort, harmony and positive active energy to the house.

Monster care

Monstera is unpretentious and grows rapidly, occupying an area of ​​about 2 square meters in a room after 3-4 years. m. Therefore, it would be more suitable for growing in an office or hall, it is an excellent decoration for an assembly or conference hall. Growing up, monsters need support, a tube with moss is best for this, but you can use absolutely any object, for example, a net, vertical trellises, etc.

Do not put the monster in the aisle, as the feathery leaves can be injured or torn if touched. Monstera does not tolerate cold drafts, from which brown spots appear on the leaves or the leaves turn yellow.

The numerous aerial roots of the plant must be tied up, directed into the ground or towards a support, but not cut off.

monstera gourmet
monstera gourmet

Monstera gourmet "Variegata" Monstera

monstera flower
monstera flower

flower

monstera oblique
monstera oblique

Oblique monstera

Temperature

In summer, the optimal temperature for monstera is between 18-25 ° C, the flower lives well in normal home conditions all year round, although it loves fresh air, small plants can be taken out into the garden or on the balcony. Avoid placing the pot next to the air conditioner!

In winter, ideally, it is desirable that the temperature at which the monstera is kept was 16-18 ° C. This is necessary so that, with a natural decrease in illumination from the end of August to the end of January (in central Russia), the monsters do not stretch, because the growth of leaves and new shoots occurs at any temperature above 14 ° C, only at a different pace. In the coolness, your beauty does not turn into a monster (as the name of the genus is translated). If the house is very light, southern unshaded windows, it survives the heating season well, but regular spraying will be needed. When grown in a conservatory or greenhouse, the minimum is 12 ° C, at this temperature, a decrease in illumination no longer plays a significant role, it is important to keep the plant dry, replace watering with spraying.

Lighting

Monstera does not tolerate direct sunlight at midday from February to mid-August. At this time of the year, all aroids need shading, if the pot is in the immediate vicinity of the south or west window (or young plants on the windowsill) - a tulle curtain is enough. But if the direct sun hits the leaves before 11 o'clock in the afternoon or after 17 o'clock in the evening, it is not dangerous and even useful.

Many people believe that the monstera is shade-loving, and put it far from the window, as an interior decoration. This is wrong, in fact, the monstera is shade-tolerant, and the best place for her is where there is a bright, but diffused light or light partial shade - next to a window that is not shaded from the street by trees or neighboring buildings. Only then will the monstera have beautiful large leaves and a dense crown. In the central and northern regions of Russia, from mid-August to January (sometimes to the end of January), the monstera is not afraid of the direct sun all day, it is even necessary for the development of a lush bush.

monstera gourmet
monstera gourmet

Monstera needs supplemental lighting in winter and in a dark place: fluorescent lamps - for one plant about 1 m high, 2 lamps with a power of 15-20 W, from different sides. LED lamps - 2 pieces with a conventional base (E27), 7.5-14 W, also at different heights or from the shaded side.

With good care and the right conditions, the monstera can bloom and even bear fruit. Monstera's inflorescence is an ear of small whitish flowers. The fruits are purple in color and form almost a year after flowering. Ripe fruits are edible, they taste like pineapple, but the unripe fruit cannot be tasted, because you can get a burn of the oral mucosa.

Plant leaves look better when treated with a leaf polish to give them a shine. In addition, leaves covered with "polish" are less dusty.

Watering

Monstera has a huge leaf mass - the evaporating surface is very large, but if you compare it, for example, with a cucumber bush of the same size, then it needs much less moisture, because its leathery leaves evaporate less water than grassy ones. The cells of the leaf epidermis are saturated with fatty or waxy substances, the leaves look shiny and smooth. Therefore, although watering the monstera should be abundant in the warm season (and in winter in a heated room), you need to wait until the top layer of the earth dries out. When kept in a greenhouse in winter or on a warmed balcony, in cooler conditions, watering is rare, after the soil is thoroughly dry.

The recommendation for how much water to pour by days of the week is incorrect, the frequency depends on changes in the weather, respectively, temperature and humidity. Focus on the fact that for the next watering, the upper part of the soil, about 1/3 of the height of the pot, should dry out.

Top dressing

From March to September, monsters are fed with complex fertilizer for indoor plants. Suitable for "Agricola - for ornamental plants", "Agricola for ficuses", "Universal Pocon" and "Pocon", good fertilizers "ETISSO", "Merry Flower Girl", "Bona Forte" and "Flower Paradise" - all from the series for decorative - deciduous. Top dressing should be done every two weeks. For large plants that are transplanted every few years, you can remove the top layer of soil in the spring and add fresh soil with well-rotted humus. If in September the weather is cloudy, there is no additional lighting, then feeding should be stopped until the end of February. If the monstera has a slow regrowth of new shoots in winter, and there is enough light, you can continue to feed it once a month.If in autumn and winter the monstera grows small leaves, with long petioles - these are signs of a lack of light, feeding is not necessary, but it is worth increasing the lighting with lamps or rearranging the pot to a cooler place.

monstera gourmet
monstera gourmet

Old specimens of plants that cannot be transplanted need to be fed not only by watering the soil, but also by spraying on the leaf. Foliar dressing must necessarily contain potassium, magnesium, boron, zinc, molybdenum.

Air humidity

Monstera loves humid air, the optimal indicator for her is 50-60%. The plant responds well to regular spraying, since the humidity is usually much lower at home. From time to time, monstera leaves are washed, rubbed with a sponge and even polished to remove dust and give shine. Placing a plant near radiators is a serious violation in the care, the tips of the leaves will dry out in the monstera, and spots will appear. Therefore, it is more correct to move the monster away from the batteries, and hang lamps nearby. The best option is to use a humidifier, otherwise you will have to cover the batteries with a damp sheet (moisten it as soon as it dries - 2-3 times a day).

How to transplant to a monster

A fast-growing monstera depletes the soil in a year, so every spring - in March-April, you need to transplant. Monsters over four to five years old are transplanted after 2-3 years, but the top layer of the earth is changed annually. Although, in general, the frequency of replanting depends on the size of the bush.

Large, delicacy monstera under the ceiling are grown in tubs or garden pots, it is almost impossible to transplant them painlessly, therefore it is correct to change the top layer of the earth annually - to loosen and remove all the soil, which is easy to give in (not entangled in roots), to carry out top dressing throughout the growing season. But if the vine develops all the signs of an acute nutritional deficiency, it must be completely transplanted, possibly with a partial rejuvenation of the bush. The fact is that with age, plants older than 10-15 years develop a huge number of aerial roots, the stem twists, and the number of leaves is small - they die off as a result of natural aging, so the bush looks like a monster: a tangle of whip-roots, and 5 -7 leaves.

In this case, you need to cut off the entire aerial part, disassemble it into petioles - leave a piece of stem and root for each leaf, and immediately plant it in fresh soil in the same pot (flowerpot, tub).

Soil for monstera

  • 2 parts of sod land, 1 part of peat land, 1 part of humus, 1 part of small river pebbles, 1 part of pine bark (pieces of 10-15 mm)
  • 2 parts of sod land, 1 part of leaf humus, 1 part of humus, 1 part of vermiculite, 1 part of coconut fiber (substrate)
  • 2 parts store soil (soil for palms, philodendrons, ficuses), 1 part humus, 1 part fine gravel (or vermiculite), 1 part coconut substrate (pine bark)

It is better not to use sand in the composition of the mixture - it is too fine and cements the soil, instead of pebbles, you can take granite chips or very fine expanded clay, particle sizes 4-5 mm.

In its pure form, store-bought soil is suitable only for growing young plants, no more than 1 m in size. For larger ones, additives of nutrient earth (humus) and leavening agents are needed to add porosity to the substrate.

Pots: Monstera gourmet is grown first in a pot (the minimum size for a cut from one leaf is 20 cm), when the plant grows up in a pots or container of 5-7 liters. More compact species: oblique and dubious monstera rarely outgrow a bucket of 10 liters, but a delicacy one grows more than 3 m over the years and for stability it needs to pick up a stronger pot (in the store you can find flowerpots for 15-20 liters). In any case, do not use too large pots with a large margin - there is a risk of waterlogging (the soil that has not been reclaimed by the roots dries for a long time, the organic matter rots in it).

Breeding monstera

Monsters reproduce easily by air layers and cuttings. The cut should have a leaf and an aerial root. When the monstera grows very large, the top with one or more aerial roots is cut off and planted as an independent plant, while the mother plant continues to grow further. If you cut off a stalk with an aerial root, then you do not need to root it in water, you can plant it right away, but make sure that the soil in the pot does not dry out completely. If the root of the cutting is less than 0.5 cm, you can put it in water until it grows about 2-3 cm.

By the way, you need to know that monstera does not reproduce with one leaf with a petiole, you need to cut off a leaf with a heel - a piece of stem, i.e. so that it has a growth bud. Put the sheet in water until the spine appears.

Rooted cuttings should be kept in a bright place, but without the bright sun. Cuttings, cut in spring and summer, take root best, in autumn and winter they will also take root, but a young plant will grow more slowly. You can root a stalk in the fall, plant it in a pot and it will stand until spring without signs of growth, but in the spring it will rapidly move to build up young leaves.

Pests

  • Scabbards: small rounded insects, covered with a brown shield, translucent in juveniles. They lead a sedentary lifestyle and therefore look like brown plaques 1-3 mm in size, on the surface of leaves and stems, suck out cell sap. Monstera leaves turn very pale, turn yellow, gradually dry and fall off.

    Control measures: for mechanical cleaning of pests, the leaves are wiped with a soapy sponge. Then the plant must be sprayed with an insecticide. Since monstera is usually a large plant, it is impossible to take it to the bathroom or outside for processing, it is better to use pesticides that are less toxic to humans - aktaru or confidor. Prepare a solution at the rate of 8 g of actara per 10 liters of water for spraying and 1 g per 10 liters of water for irrigation. Maximum efficiency is achieved with simultaneous spraying and watering.

  • Thrips - silvery spots appear on the leaves, gradually merging into larger ones; with a large lesion, the leaves become translucent in places with a shine like mica - these are leaf tissues gnawed by thrips larvae. The pests themselves jump and fly you can not always see them - they are small black or brown have a very elongated thin body in the form of a spindle (1-2 mm in length)

    Other signs of thrips are white or gray husks on the surface of the leaves and black sticky drops are the excrement of the pest …

    Control measures: phytoverm, decis, actellik, inta-vir are effective against thrips, but aktar is still better. First, wipe the leaves on both sides with a damp cloth, then dilute 1 g of powder in 1 liter of water and spray the leaves thoroughly.

  • A spider mite also sometimes affects a monster - a thinnest cobweb appears in the internodes on the stems, yellowish spots of irregular shape appear on the leaves, microscopic scales are visible on the back of the leaf - skins from the molting of the pest. Gradually, the leaves turn very yellow and fall off.

    Control measures: you need to wash the monster with a sponge and soap (household or tar), if the bush is small, then take it to the bath and rinse the leaves with very hot water (50-65 degrees). If the plant is large, then you will have to turn to chemical agents - acaricides (apollo, vermitic, anti-mite and others).

  • Mealybugs: they hide in the leaf axils, more in the root zone, but over time they spread throughout the plant. They look like shaggy white bugs, their clusters look like cotton balls at the base of the leaf stalks. Worms can greatly harm the plant - the leaves bend, dry and fall off, the plant withers before our eyes.

    Control measures: the same as with the shield - watering and simultaneous spraying with actara is most effective. The pests themselves must be removed with a cotton swab dipped in alcohol.

Monster growing problems

monstera turns yellow
monstera turns yellow
  • Monstera leaves are small, not cut, on long stalks - juvenile leaves should be like that on the tops of the shoots), but if such leaves on the entire stem are a lack of light, you need to rearrange the plant in a more illuminated place.
  • Monstera leaves turn yellow - with large-scale yellowing, the cause may be waterlogging of the soil, this is especially dangerous in winter at low temperatures in the room (balcony), from strong dampness the leaves also become soft, hang like rags. With a lack of nutrition, the leaf turns yellow gradually, from the tip. Check the soil - loosen the top layer of the soil as much as possible and touch the soil in the back of the pot. If too damp, loosen deeper. When a plant's shoots become sluggish from dampness, it remains only to cut off the branches and re-root.
  • The leaves turn yellow, dry brown spots appear on them - with insufficient watering or when it is too hot and dry (in winter during the heating season). Check the soil, if it is very hot and dry, water more often.
  • If brown spots along the entire edge of the leaf, like a border, are a lack of potassium, it happens in old plants that have not been transplanted for a long time.
  • The leaves are pale-transparent, turn gray, then turn brown - with an excess of sunlight, burns in the spring on sunny windows are especially dangerous.
  • The bare lower part of the trunk or stem, small leaves, poorly cut, long internodes - an acute lack of lighting, although over time the plant tends to lose leaves in the lower part of the stems.
  • Yellowing or drying of leaves can also be caused by pests - examine the leaves from all sides, especially the back side, preferably with a magnifying glass.

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