Cattleya Cattleya

Table of contents:

Cattleya Cattleya
Cattleya Cattleya
Video: Cattleya Cattleya
Video: Орхидейно - каттлейные страсти... Мечты сбываются. Cattleya triumphans, cattleya rex..Ураааа!!! 2023, February
Anonim
cattleya
cattleya

Orchid family. Homeland South and Central America, Antilles. Probably the most famous genus of orchids. Cattleya are epiphytic plants, with a sympodial type of growth, with a pronounced aboveground rhizome. In nature, there are about 40 species, and various hybrids obtained by biologists from interspecies crossing, as well as crossing with orchids of another genus, number in the thousands. All Cattleya in nature are epiphytes or lithophytes (grow exclusively on trees and crevices of rocky terrain).

There are two types of Cattleya:

  • Representatives of the first group have elongated fleshy fusiform, sometimes flattened bulbs with one apical leathery leaf. The peduncle emerges from the cover at the top of the new growth and bears several large fragrant flowers. Their predominant color is from pink-violet to white. There are often yellow spots on the lip.
  • The second group is represented by plants with long (in some species up to 1 m) cylindrical bulbs bearing two or more leathery elliptical leaves. The peduncle is apical, with several medium-sized flowers. The flowers are more varied in color than those of the first group and often have a denser texture.
cattleya
cattleya

Cattleya labiata Cattleya labiata - this vast species has such common features - a large spindle-shaped, somewhat flattened pseudobulb about 20 cm long, covered with grayish films-scales. Leaves are leathery, oblong, about 20-25 cm long, with a small notch at the top. The flowers are very large - up to 20 cm in diameter, several pieces (3-5) are collected in the apical racemose inflorescence. Sepals and petals from pink to lilac, of various shades, with a wavy edge, and the sepals are about three times narrower than the petals. The lip is large, weakly three-lobed in shape. The lateral lobes are curved, and the middle one is wide and unfolded, it stands out with a bright purple-purple color, a bright yellow spot in the fauces and with a curly, lighter edge.

cattleya
cattleya

Cattleya Dow Cattleya dowiana - a synonym for Cattleya Doviana - a species native to the Caribbean, refers to the unifolia species of Cattleya. It has long, elongated bulbs up to almost 20 cm, the leaves are elongated-elliptical, slightly more than 20 cm long and 5-6 cm wide. Peduncle is short 11-12 cm, with a spike-shaped inflorescence bearing 4 or 5 flowers. The flowers are large - in a span of 15-17 cm, fragrant. In the original orchid, the sepals and petals are pale yellow. The lip is dark purple with yellow streaks and a narrow purple fringe around the edge. Catlea Dow has several forms, slightly differing in color of the petals.

cattleya
cattleya

Cattleya warneri Cattleya warneri is a very popular single-leaved cattleya, classified as a spring-flowering species. Bulbs are clavate, about 40-50 cm long, slightly flattened. Leaves are elliptical, much shorter, on average 15-22 cm in length. Peduncles are short, no more than 15 cm long, have 3-5 flowers. Flowers 15-20 cm in diameter, very fragrant. Sepals and petals are light purple. The lip has a fringed anterior lobe, purple in color and a yellow-orange neck with white or purple streaks. This cattleya has many varieties with flower color variations in lilac, lavender, light lilac and white. The original form of the species is very similar to that of Cattleya labiata. They could easily be confused if it were not for too different flowering periods: May-June for Cattleya Warner and September-November for Cattleya with a lipped.

Cattleya Species Reference

Cattleya - care and cultivation

Cattleya (and their hybrids) are conventionally divided into spring-flowering and autumn-flowering. Differences in growing conditions exist for different species, and within the same species for different forms. But, nevertheless, Cattleya orchids are quite flexible and get used to the created microclimate well, which is primarily due to the creation of a very bright place, a fairly high air humidity and a constant supply of fresh air. Very critical for the flowering of Cattleya is a mandatory dormant period of at least 2 months with a dry content, daily fluctuations in temperature and daylength.

Most of the Cattleya are plants with a pronounced dormant period. Moreover, some univalent Cattleya species have two dormant periods, before and after flowering; in two-leaved forms, the dormant period is usually not so clearly expressed, and its duration depends on the conditions of the orchid. Some species, native to areas with minor seasonal differences, such as Cattleya violacea, do not have a pronounced dormant period.

Temperature

Cattleyas are mostly moderately thermophilic and require daily temperature fluctuations of at least 7-12 ° C. In summer, the optimum temperature is around 22-26 ° C, but preferably no higher than 30 ° C. Night minimum 12-14 ° C. In winter, a dormant period when kept in cool conditions, for most, 15-16 ° C is enough, at least 10 ° C. Some species (Cattleya Bowring hybrids) need a cooler wintering at 10-12 ° C, and not higher than 25 ° C in summer.

Lighting

Cattleya are photophilous, the best place for them is the east and west windows, on the south window shading will be needed during the hottest hours of the day. Flowering of some unifolia cattleya stimulates short daylight hours (less than 12 hours). Based on the exact figures, the American Orchid Society, the American Orchid Society, voices the needs of Cattleya for illumination as follows: in spring and summer, on sunny days, 20,000 lux is enough, more intense sun can lead to overheating of plants. In winter, however, 40,000 lux is needed - this is the maximum available sunlight on the southern window in central Russia.

Watering and feeding

Watering at normal room temperature twice a week, despite the fact that the substrate should have time to dry out completely in 1-1.5 days. From autumn the watering frequency should be reduced if the plants take longer to dry! It all depends on the temperature - it can be once a week or one and a half. And if in winter the orchids are in deep coolness, watering is very rare, almost dry content, so as only to prevent severe shrinkage of the pseudobulbs. Too abundant (frequent) watering during the dormant period inevitably leads to decay of the roots, if the cattleya turns out to be sufficiently stable, then the minimum that threatens it is a lag in the growth and development of new bulbs in the spring. In the worst case, the plant will die.

The stimulus for flowering is to reduce watering at the end of the growing season, not while flower buds appear, but before they appear. Watering can be reduced, even if the Cattleya is driving a new leaf, it will not harm her. But if you continue to water intensively during the formation of the peduncle, it can "fall asleep".

At the beginning of growth (from April to July), Cattleya are fed with a special fertilizer for orchids with a NPK ratio of 18-12-18. Regardless of the time of year and month, you need to finish feeding before the new bulbs fully mature at the end of formation. If you continue to water intensively, the orchid does not move to the flowering phase, but continues to grow new bulbs. Overfeeding with fertilizers not only inhibits flowering, but also inhibits the growth of Cattleya.

cattleya
cattleya

Even in a clay pot, Cattleya should have holes in the walls.

Air humidity

Cattleyas require high air humidity of about 70-80%, with very good air movement, so it is better to place it near a tray with water or wet pebbles. Can be grown in a wide aquarium (of course, pour only a little water on the bottom), if you have a fan. Air humidity is maintained high regardless of the season, but when the temperature drops naturally, it automatically keeps about 50-55%, but in a heated room it is much higher, which affects orchids in an unfavorable way. The problem is not to increase the humidity in winter, but to find a colder and shaded place for the Cattleya. By the way, do not forget that high air humidity is dangerous if there is poor ventilation.But for Cattleya it may not be enough to place a fan next to the plants - driving the stale air of the room back and forth is not useful, an inflow of oxygen is needed, so it is worth considering the ventilation system of the apartment.

Transfer

The transplant is carried out when the roots no longer fit in the pot. The substrate is pieces of pine bark, forest moss, pieces of styrofoam or coconut chips. You can plant Cattleya in hanging baskets, and small plants - on blocks (pieces of bark, stumps of tree branches), in Europe and America, blocks of fern roots are used. The choice of planting method depends on the conditions of detention. So, when kept in a room greenhouse, it is necessary to plant in a basket without a substrate or on a block. Without a greenhouse - into the bark.

American Orchid Society, interview with Bruno Dietler Bruno Ditzler (hobbyist and collector who grows orchids in four greenhouses in Basel): “I plant Cattleya in the following proportions: 80% fir bark, 10% charcoal and 10% foam. only rainwater collected from the roof drainage system is used, and the water is heated to 20 ° C before irrigation. " Watering is carried out from a garden hose, which is no wonder, because Brugo Dietler has a lot of orchids in three greenhouses. Since the wetting from the hose is short-term, the orchids are additionally "fogged" daily from the humidifier. However, this is permissible only under conditions of automatic air circulation (Bruno has several fans in his greenhouses).

Reproduction: By division, while in each part there should be at least two pseudobulbs, with a growth point.

Popular by topic