Coffea Coffee

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Coffea Coffee
Coffea Coffee
Video: Coffea Coffee
Video: Coffea Coffee 2023, February
Anonim

Madder family. Homeland Africa and Asia. There are about 40 species in nature.

Arabian coffee or arabica coffee Coffea arabica is an evergreen tree, reaching 4 m in height in nature. Although in culture, a dwarf variety is more common, growing only about 1 m in height. The coffee tree branches well, the leaves are opposite, oblong, pointed at the end and wavy at the edge, up to 15 cm long. The leaf surface is dark green, leathery. The flowers are axillary, fragrant, collected in 5-6 pieces, on short stalks. The corolla of the flower is five-petal, white. Fruits - berries with 2-3 seeds, appear only on mature plants. Blooms in April - May

A coffee tree
A coffee tree
A coffee tree
A coffee tree
A coffee tree
A coffee tree

The coffee tree is considered by many to be an undemanding plant, but this is only if the conditions of detention are correctly observed. At home, coffee grows quickly, the ceiling (height 2.5 m) reaches after 8-9 years with sufficient light. This is one of the few tropical fruit trees that is easy to grow in an apartment, i.e. in warm conditions all year round.

Another photo of a coffee tree

Caring for the coffee tree

Temperature: moderate in summer, does not like extreme heat, so do not leave on a glassed-in balcony on sunny days. In winter, it is ideal within the range of 14-15 ° C, but not lower than 12 ° C, but if there is no possibility of a cool winter, coffee will normally survive the winter if it does not stand next to a hot battery and has enough light.

Lighting: bright diffused light from March to July, shading from direct sunlight is required only in the hottest hours of the day (from 11 to 15 hours). From autumn to the end of winter, at an air temperature above 22 ° C, additional lighting may be required if the pot is far from the window, moreover, from October to the end of January in central Russia, the sun is not aggressive and shading is not required at all. If necessary, you can supplement the coffee tree with LED or fluorescent lamps.

Watering: plentiful in summer, so that the soil inside the pot is slightly damp, and has time to dry out in the upper half of the pot before the next watering. In winter, it is moderate, but taking into account the temperature in the room, if the wintering is cool, after drying the soil, before watering, wait a few more days (if about 18-20 ° C - a week, if it is below 16 ° C for about 2-3 weeks). Avoid excessive dampness and overdrying of the substrate - coffee is equally bad for both. To avoid waterlogging, pay attention to the porosity of the soil. If the water in your area is hard, then for irrigation use water filtered by household filters or boiled.

Top dressing: during the growth period from April to September, every two weeks with complex fertilizers for indoor plants. It is correct during the growing season, leaf growth, to start feeding with fertilizers containing a high proportion of nitrogen (Ideal, Uniflor growth, Pocon for deciduous, etc.) or well-diluted organic matter. Carry out 2-3 feeding, with an interval of two weeks. Then switch to fertilizers with a high proportion of potassium and phosphorus. This is potassium nitrate, potassium monophosphate, etc. A coffee tree is very sensitive to a lack of potassium - with a deficiency, it manifests itself in the browning and drying of the tips and edges of the leaves, the so-called edge burn. The need for potassium is especially high in flowering and fruiting coffee trees. If chlorosis appears on the leaves (veins are green, and yellowness between them), the reason may be a lack of iron,which needs to be replenished by spraying iron-containing preparations on the sheet.

Humidity: The coffee tree requires high air humidity, spray it with warm, soft water, distilled water (to avoid stains on the leaves), or turn on a humidifier on hot summer days. Protect the batteries from the hot dry air in every possible way in winter. If it is not possible to rearrange the coffee tree in a cool room, hang the batteries with wet sheets, place trays with wet gravel or moss. But you don't need to spread damp moss on the surface of the pot, just outside of it! Otherwise, the closed, moist soil turns sour, the roots do not breathe, they rot.

Transplantation: every spring young plants, old ones - after 2-3 years, but with the annual replacement of the top layer of soil in the pot Coffee requires a slightly acidic soil reaction, optimally 5.5-6, but not more. The soil is prepared from 2 parts of leafy land, 1 part of greenhouse land, 1 part of humus, 1 part of fine gravel (2-3 mm crumbs) and 1 part of pine bark. You can add a handful of vermiculite. Good drainage is essential, about 2-3 cm to the bottom of the pot.

Reproduction: seeds and semi-lignified cuttings in the spring.

The seeds of the coffee tree quickly lose their germination, so they are sown immediately after ripening. Ripe fruits are removed, cut and pulp removed from the seeds, then washed in warm water. A substrate of peat, leafy soil and sand is poured into the bowls, and the seeds are spread with the flat side on the surface, slightly pressing down, but not sprinkling with earth. Pour or spray with warm, soft water from a spray bottle and place in a plastic bag. The seeds are ventilated twice a day for half an hour to avoid excessive moisture and mold. Seeds germinate within 2 months, at a temperature of about 20 ° C and slightly higher, therefore, it is possible to use soil heating. After two pairs of leaves have formed, the coffee is transplanted into separate pots. Young plants begin to bear fruit only at 3 - 4 years,when fertile, about 150 cm tall.

Features of growing a coffee tree

Here are some tips from gardeners who know firsthand about the coffee tree at home.

Jakonya: I'll tell you an original way of germinating coffee from seeds. Coffee seeds (only fresh, green) are thrown into a glass of water. This glass should be placed under the lamp in a warm place (the water should always be warm). Change the water daily. When the roots bite, catch the seeds and plant them in the ground. So the coffee rises much better than just sowing in the ground.

coffee peels off the bark
coffee peels off the bark

The thin bark of the coffee tree peels off. The tree itself feels great, drinks like a horse, sprouts, honestly branches without pruning. But maybe what am I doing wrong, or what is he missing?

And how do you make coffee bear fruit?

Alex: The coffee just sheds - the old used bark is leaving, under it should be young. You have a completely healthy plant, start feeding with mixtures of organic and mineral fertilizers. For example, you can feed Agricola for flowering indoor.

Nicolas: If you want the coffee to blossom and bear fruit, pour 1-2 cm of horn shavings into the pot over the drainage. In addition, you also mulch the top of the roots by 5-10 mm with horn shavings. Water the coffee tree only with soft water, always warm.

a coffee tree
a coffee tree

Why is the barrel of coffee exposed and how to properly cut coffee?

Alex: leaves live for 2-3 years, then they start to die off. For pruning, step back 2-3 mm from the pair of leaves in the place where you planned to cut the branch, and cut it off with a pruner or sharp knife. Very soon, two branches will appear from the extreme leaves, thus a very dense and beautiful crown can be achieved.

Nicolas: to form a coffee tree, follow the scheme: pinch the tip of the shoot on the fourth pair of leaves, then on the third, and then on the second, that's all. Such a scheme is advisable, because the coffee branch grows up to almost one and a half meters, and in the third year it changes the old foliage.

Jekky: I also have long, bare trunks, although the leaves were not yet two years old when they fell off. It is believed that the reason is that there is no change of seasons in the room, because coffee does not have time to be covered with bark. There should be a slight decrease in temperature, as recommended above to 15-16 ° C. This is especially true for Dutch (greenhouse) coffee trees. Those that are grown at home from seed are more adapted to home conditions.

Hovea: Don't be discouraged by the bare trunk of the coffee. I was in the Ecuadorian jungle and saw coffee in the wild. The same bare trunk, and even the leaves are eaten away by parasites! I was even somewhat shocked by such a nondescript appearance of real coffee! I also have a coffee tree, it is 4 years old, the trunk also became bare over time. Last year it bloomed with me and gave several fruits. And now, on a bare trunk, I awakened several kidneys. In general, we are growing interesting!

coffee turns yellow
coffee turns yellow

In a coffee tree, new leaves, growing, acquire chlorosis (lightish between the veins). Stands in a well-lit place. What is he missing?

Alex: Coffee leaves are unhealthy and this is due to a violation of the acidity of the soil. The soil is too acidic and elements such as iron and manganese are not absorbed or pass into difficult-to-reach forms. Now feed the coffee with an ash hood. Preparation of an extract from ash: take a tablespoon of ash per liter of water, stir and let it brew for a couple of days, drain from the sediment and water the plant.

If the lower, older leaves of coffee turn yellow, then, most likely, a planned replacement of the leaves is in progress. The duration of coffee leaves, like that of citrus fruits, is 2-3 years, on young plants this period is shorter. The leaves, before falling off, give up all their accumulated nutrients to the leaves of the next generation, therefore they turn yellow.

coffee turns yellow
coffee turns yellow

The coffee leaves are too light in color. I try to maintain soil moisture, spray it, water it with warm water, feed it with fertilizer for roses, after 2 weeks I alternate root and leaf spraying. Stand on the southern shaded, if hot, window, planted in the ground for lemons. It used to be really bad - the leaves "rusted" and dried up. Now they began to grow, but for some reason they are very bright.

Natalia Matyushevskaya: Lightening of coffee leaves can be observed when the acidity of the soil is not suitable. I recommend periodically pouring slightly acidified water. I usually add lemon juice - 2/3 drops per liter. But you can also use citric acid (a few grains per liter), or apple cider vinegar (half a teaspoon per liter of water). Also, a similar picture occurs due to the lack of assimilable iron - try the old "old-fashioned" method - a rusty nail in the ground. I have not used any chelates for a long time, and there are no problems with chlorosis.

irina-bahus: chlorosis on coffee leaves. Try spraying with iron chelate, see how you react. And add citric acid (a little) to the water for irrigation. In an alkaline environment, iron in the desired form is not absorbed.

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