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Aroid family. Homeland Central and South America. There are about 30 species in the genus. They are all herbaceous plants or vines. Many form aerial roots. The rhizome is horizontal, rhizome. Vaginal leaves (cover the stem at the base), on long petioles. Plants of this family are very similar to close relatives - philodendrons. But their leaves are thinner and softer. The leaf blade is often not smooth, but with noticeable venation and slight tuberosity. Do not bloom in indoor conditions. The syngonium is notable for the fact that it changes the shape of the leaves with age - in young plants they are arrow-shaped, and in older plants they have clearly pronounced lobes, and they resemble an irregularly shaped star, in which one of the rays is extended.
Syngonium leg-leaved Syngonium podophyllum - with light green heart-shaped leaves, about 7-13 cm long on long petioles. The leaf plate is divided from 3-11 segments, usually accrete. There are variegated varieties that differ in the shape and color of the spots on the leaves
Syngonium podophyllum 'Pixie'
Syngonium podophyllum 'Regina Red'
- Syngonium auricular Syngonium auritum - with dark green leaves and a bluish stem and well-developed aerial roots in the nodes. The leaf is separate from 3 to 5 segments, with a larger central segment. Differs in rapid growth. Sometimes it blooms - an inflorescence of an ear with a cover about 5 cm, light green with a reddish spot on the inside.
- Syngonium Wendlandii Syngonium wendlandii - with dark green leaves on long petioles, tripartite. The central segment is up to 10 cm long, the lateral ones are up to 15 cm. The surface of the leaf is velvety, the central vein is silvery.
- Syngonium narrowed Syngonium angustatum - leaf lobes are narrower, elongated, along the central vein there is often a stele-green strip. The original appearance is pure green leaves. The leaf of this species is pinnate, but not triple, as in the pedunculate, but consists of 7-9 segments.
Syngonium podophyllum 'Imperial White'
Syngonium podophyllum 'White Butterfly'
Syngonium podophyllum 'Neon'
Confusion sometimes arises in the varieties of syngoniums, some are officially registered in catalogs, they can be easily found on English-language sites, for example, Syngonium podophyllum 'Imperial White', or Syngonium podophyllum 'Pixie', while others appear only in Russian-language forums, for example, Syngonium 'Spear Point '. Many varieties come from Thailand, the name of the species is not even mentioned, only the variety is indicated, which is not registered anywhere, but quickly takes root among flower growers.
More photos of syngoniums can be found on the Flower Collections forum.
You can grow syngonium as an ampelous plant by hanging the pot high, then the branches of the plant will hang down with a green carpet. By the way, it is very convenient to use a tube with moss as a support for syngonium, the plant itself twists around it and grows upward, reaching 1.5 - 1.8 meters in height. The plant is also well suited for growing in hydroponics. In general, the Syngonium grows quickly and is quite unpretentious at home.
Temperature: Grows well in warm rooms at an average of 18-20 ° C, and not lower than 16 ° C in winter. In special conditions, it does not need a cool wintering if it is light enough.
Lighting: Bright diffused light, obligatory shading from direct sunlight at noon in spring and, especially, in summer - in the hot sun, the plant can get burned. Syngonium species with dark green leaves tolerate light partial shade, variegated varieties are more photophilous, an east or north-west window is suitable for them. In winter, good lighting is required, otherwise the leaves begin to shrink and lose color, so by winter, move the syngonium closer to the window, or turn on a fluorescent or LED lamp nearby.
Watering: Should be regular, abundant in spring and summer, moderate in winter. The soil should not dry out completely, and should not remain too moist for a long time. Focus on the depth of drying of the substrate: for the next watering, the soil in the pot should dry out well in the upper third of the pot.
Top dressing during the period of active growth from March to August in two weeks, with complex fertilizer for deciduous plants. If there is a lack of nutrients in the soil, then young leaves become smaller. But an excess of fertilizers is harmful, causes a completely opposite reaction - chlorosis or necrosis (browning) of the edges of the leaves.
Air humidity: Frequent spraying is necessary if the humidity is below 50%. Syngonium loves humid air, optimally 50-60%. Remember that watering too often will not compensate for the lack of moisture in the air. Therefore, in the winter, install a humidifier or place the pot on a wide tray with damp moss or coconut fiber.
Transfer: Annually or every two years in the spring. Soil - 2 parts of leaf, 1 part of humus, 1 part of sand or vermiculite. pH is slightly acidic. Pieces of pine bark (1/5 of the volume of the earth) can be added to the soil to loosen it. Choose a pot that is wider, but shallow, with holes in the bottom. Small-leaved varieties of syngonium tend to grow upward, gradually, as if crawling out of the ground, dried scales remain from old dead leaves. This is normal, but somewhat spoils the look of the bush, the plant looks unkempt. There is an option when transplanting to cut the lower part of the roots, plant the bush deeper or mulch with fresh earth. But after 3-4 years, completely rejuvenate the bush: divide it during transplantation, select the most healthy parts and plant it again together in one pot.
Reproduction: Cuttings and air layers. The vegetative reproduction of the syngonium is not difficult. A stalk with a heel (a piece of stem), in the presence of aerial roots, is immediately planted in the ground. If there are no air roots, then it is put on rooting in water, or planted in a mixture of peat, vermiculite and sphagnum moss (all in equal parts) under a jar, bag, or mini-greenhouse.
Syngonium is rarely attacked by pests, but sometimes thrips and scale insects attack it.
Scutellum - similar to brown, sometimes translucent, convex warts, covered with a hard shield; when scraped off, a wet spot remains. They spread on leaves on both sides and on stems. The damaged plant slows down or stops growing, the leaves dry out.
Control measures. Manually wipe the pests off each leaf with a soapy sponge. Water the soil and spray with Actara systemic insecticide. In case of severe damage, repeat the treatment. Can be sprayed with actellik, fitoverm and other insecticides.
Thrips - light dots, strokes, irregular spots with a silvery sheen (like mica) appear on the upper side of the sheet. Sometimes black tar droplets and dirty gray husks remain on the leaves. The leaves dry out quickly, the plant stops growing.
Control measures. Wipe the leaves with a soapy sponge to remove pest secretions. The plant should be sprayed, if necessary, repeatedly with insecticides (fitoverm, decis, actellik, inta-vir). You can water the soil with aktara. In case of severe damage, repeat the treatment.
Ticks are extremely harmful to the syngonium if they enter the house from the street when ventilated or with infected plants. They are not noticeable right away - the leaves of the syngonium are quite light, they become grayer from the tick, the smallest very frequent puncture points are visible through the lumen of the leaf. Then yellow spots. Sometimes the leaves turn yellow, and ticks are not visible (some species can only be detected under a microscope), the web is not always the case. In this case, give the plant a hot shower: put it on its side in the bathroom and water for 2 minutes from the hot shower, first on one side, then on the other. Repeat after three days. And so 4-5 times. But every other time the soil needs to be covered with a film to avoid waterlogging, do not water until it dries out. Acaricides help from chemicals (fitoverm, actellik, castor oil, etc.).
- Dry brown tips or leaf edges due to too dry air.
- The leaves become pale and lose their shine - due to too high humidity or excessive watering, and the leaves turn pale if the plant is too dark.
- New leaves are smaller than old ones due to a lack of light or nutrients in the soil.
- The variegated forms of syngonium lose their color and become almost green in color due to a lack of light.
- If brown spots appear on the syngonium along the edge or in the center of the leaf blade, first of all, reconsider the watering regime. You may be watering the plant too hard.
In addition, planting syngonium in a too large pot (photo on the right) and too heavy, dense soil leads to flooding, acidification of the earth and slowing growth.