Table of contents:
- Stefanotis - care and cultivation
- Stephanotis transplant
- Reproduction of stephanotis
- Stephanotis does not bloom
- Care and cultivation
- Stephanotis transplant
- Stephanotis does not bloom
Kutrovy family, subfamily of lastovae. Homeland Africa, Madagascar and the Pacific Islands, Asia, Cuba. About 15 species are widespread in nature.
Abundant Stephanotis Stephanotis floribunda is an evergreen liana, the shoots of which woody over time and reach 5-6 m in length. The leaves are opposite, oval in shape, with a small pointed tip at the end, dark green in color, on short petioles. Leaves are dense, juicy, about 10 cm long and 5 cm wide, slightly bent along the central vein. Inflorescences are axillary shields, each bearing 8-10 fragrant flowers. The corolla of the flower is funnel-shaped, five-petal, white or cream, 3-4 cm in diameter, the tube is elongated, about 3 cm long
For pollination, a second plant is not required, although it is difficult, you can try to get the ovaries by pollinating the flowers with a small brush. The fruit is a berry, reminiscent of a mango fruit, about 10 cm long. Initially, the fruit is green, when fully ripe (about 9 months), it becomes yellow and shriveled and is suitable for obtaining seeds. Seeds of Stephanotis are thin, cylindrical, fluffy (there are up to 100 of them in one fruit), in nature they are carried by the wind. Stephanotis flowers stay in the cut for 1-2 days, in the USA it is the most popular flower in a bride's bouquet.
Stephanotis was first described in 1806, the name comes from the Greek stephanos - "crown, wreath", while the word stephanotis is a feminine gender from the word crown in Latin - such associations are caused by the shape of the stamens - they are not in the form of ordinary pillows on stamen threads, but short ones in the form of teeth surround the pistil. Although another incorrect interpretation often appears in the literature, which appeared much later - supposedly the name is from the Greek stefanos (crown) and otis (ear), if you look closely, the stamens may resemble a kind of vampire ears.
Stefanotis - care and cultivation
An adult stephanotis is formed by pruning at the end of winter to stimulate new growth, and by tying the branches to supports. Without pruning at home, the shoots of Stephanotis can reach several meters in length. Therefore, one of the options for fixing is to several trellises stuck in a pot. A common situation - when buying a blooming stephanotis, seemingly healthy, with many buds, at home he begins to lose color, dry the buds. The fact is that Stephanotis does not tolerate a change of place, rearrangement, transportation at the beginning and during flowering, just be prepared for the flowering to end quickly, and in order to achieve a second one, you will have to take good care of the plant, choose the right place, and compose the soil for transplants, guess with fertilizer, etc.
Temperature: In summer, ordinary room temperature, optimally within 18-24 ° C, in closed, unventilated rooms it does not tolerate heat above 30 ° C (flowering ends quickly, sometimes the lower leaves dry). In winter, a cool content is required, at a temperature in the range of 13-16 ° C, but not lower than 12 ° C. Stephanotis suffers especially badly in winter in heated houses with insufficient lighting.
Lighting: Stefanotis prefers a sunny place, but he only benefits from the sun until noon, in the afternoon it is too hot on the sunny windowsill. Therefore, if you have southern or southwestern windows (not shaded by trees and houses from the street), keep the pot with stephanotis from September to February on the windowsill, and from February to August near the window, under the shade of a tulle curtain. In poor light, the shoots stretch out, Stephanotis does not bloom, so you will not get the long-awaited flowers on windows with a north orientation.
Watering: Moderate in the spring and summer, the soil should dry well before the next watering. In winter, watering is limited, depending on the temperature, the land should dry out very well. Water for irrigation is used soft, settled. Like hoyi, stephanotis tolerate some dryness of the soil more easily than excessive watering. Remember - waterlogging of the soil is destructive!
The main problem when growing Stephanotis at home is improper watering. What does this mean: the soil in the pot of Stephanotis should have such a structure and be watered with such frequency that it dries out no longer than 3 days. The most dangerous period for a grower or plant is the time when the heating is turned off, and the weather outside changes dramatically. This happens in spring and autumn - daily temperature fluctuations are very large, sudden cold snap and rains lead to the fact that the house is cool and very humid, on such days the flowers need to be watered much less often, only making sure that the soil is well dried (touch the ground with your finger in the depth of the pot). If the flowers have already been watered abundantly, do everything so that they dry out faster - loosen the soil in a pot or transfer to a drier place. If the soil in the pot of Stephanotis does not dry out for more than 5 days,or suddenly you noticed mushroom mosquitoes, do not wait for the leaves to turn yellow - the roots are already rotting! Remove the plant from the pot, examine the roots, dry it with an earthen ball, or plant it in a fresh, not damp substrate.
Air humidity: Stephanotis love high air humidity. They are sprayed on very dry and hot days, or the pot is placed on a tray with water when the humidity is within 50% and higher, the plants do not need to be sprayed. In winter, stephanotis must be protected from the directed hot air of the batteries, if it is not possible to provide a cool winter, cover the batteries with wet sheets.
Fertilizer: From March to September, i.e. during the period of active growth, Stephanotis needs additional feeding. However, not everything is so simple - it is not for nothing that this flower is considered capricious, at the beginning of the growth of the green mass it must be fed with a fertilizer containing nitrogen and, preferably, a set of necessary macro and microelements. Pocon, Bona Forte, Ethisso, Ava, Good Power - any for decorative leafy, not for flowering, will do. It is necessary to carry out such dressings only 1-1.5 months after transplanting 2-3 dressings with an interval of 2 weeks, according to the instructions. If humus soil was added to the soil, then feeding should be carried out in a lower concentration. The same applies to those who use oily black earth soil for planting flowers.
So, after being fed with nitrogenous fertilizers at the start of growth, they are no longer needed, then use nitrogen-free fertilizers. Ideally, from the moment the buds appear, fertilizer with the NPK 0-10-10 formula is needed, i.e. we do without nitrogen, but a lot of phosphorus and potassium. The Russian industry produces few such (complex) fertilizers, but you can find it. For example:
- AVA - complex nitrogen-free, phosphorus (P) 49-55%, potassium (K) 17-19%, calcium (Ca) 12-14%, magnesium (Mn) 4-5%, silicon (Si) 3-4%, boron (B) 1-1.5%, in addition manganese, sulfur, copper, cobalt, iron, molybdenum: 0.1-0.2% each, selenium about 0.005%. This fertilizer does not dissolve very well in water, it makes sense to fill it with water (according to the instructions) and wait a day or two until it is completely dissolved, or add granules directly to the soil.
- Agrecol is a granular fertilizer for garden plants that can be used for indoor plants. Does not contain nitrogen, phosphorus (P) - 13%, potassium (K) - 27%, additionally magnesium and trace elements.
- If there are no such fertilizers, you can use fertilizers for orchids (feeding weekly), as well as Fertika Lux, Agricola for flowering, etc., where there is a little nitrogen.
Continue top dressing until October, then do not feed until spring. In some cases, if a noticeable growth begins in February, you can feed it at the end of winter, or carry out a transplant. Stephanotis is sensitive to a lack of magnesium and iron in the soil. Therefore, if you notice chlorosis on the leaves (we exclude ticks and other pests), then think, perhaps, your soil is alkalized from improper fertilization or the earth sour from excess watering.
Plants are transplanted annually into well-drained, nutritious soil, and if necessary (with salinization), you need to change the top layer of the earth to a fresh one. Stefanotis prefers a slightly acidic soil with a pH of 5.6-6.5. The following mixture is suitable for planting: 1 part of sod land, 1 part of leafy land, 1 part of sand and 1 part of pine bark. Good drainage must be done without fail, moreover, drainage can not only be placed on the bottom of the pot (large expanded clay), but also vermiculite can be added to the ground, replacing part of the sand with it.
There is a way to check if you have compiled the soil correctly: dry the prepared soil, for example, in the oven, pour it into an empty pot and water it. If water is not absorbed instantly (in 2 seconds), but stays on the surface for 10-15 seconds or more, this is a bad soil. If the water is instantly absorbed and also immediately flows out of the drainage hole, this is a bad soil, which means that the water flows down the walls, but the root ball will remain semi-dry. An ideal soil of such a structure that even when it is very dry, it instantly absorbs water after irrigation, but the residues do not flow out immediately - the soil is evenly wetted.
Better, more evenly, the soil is wetted, to which pine bark, coconut flakes (from briquettes) or zeolite granules (from "Barsik" type cat litter) are added. However, if the bark acidifies the soil, then zeolite or coconut briquettes can increase the alkalinity of the soil, so it is better to check the prepared mixture with litmus paper. If it is not there, then it is a good idea to acidify the water for irrigating stephanotis: add 1 tbsp for 1 liter of water. a spoonful of apple cider vinegar.
Stefanotis roots are fleshy, juicy and fragile, so to avoid rotting after transplanting, refrain from watering for two days, but never transplant on hot days. If, when transplanting a store-bought Stephanotis, you see a net or fabric wrapper around the roots, you do not need to remove it, it does not interfere with the roots, but attempts to tear off inevitably injure the roots.
Which pot for stephanotis is best suited: definitely not too spacious, with many holes in the bottom. Take the size about 2-3 cm larger in diameter than the previous one, provided that the roots have strongly filled all the space. Tentatively, an adult plant usually needs a pot about 15-20 cm in diameter. Stefanotis is a vine that requires support, but at the same time it should not be planted in hanging pots - the stems are too heavy, the leaf mass hanging down pulls roots from the ground, injuries are inevitable.
If during transplanting you found that the roots either rotted or grew weakly and did not braid the entire earthen ball, then cut off the damaged roots (sprinkle all juicy cuts and cuts with birch charcoal) and plant them in an old pot in fresh soil. It is very important, especially for plastic pots, that the holes at the bottom are large - not 2-3 mm, but about 1 cm, and drainage is required at the bottom. As drainage, foam plastic, brick chips, even better broken coconut shells into shards. You need to put it so that the pieces lie with the convex side up - it is important for us that the drain holes are not clogged with earth, pebbles or expanded clay! Stephanotis roots should not be constantly damp.
Reproduction of stephanotis
This wonderful plant is propagated vegetatively - by stem cuttings and seeds. The best season for breeding Stephanotis: spring - early summer. Cuttings about 10 cm long are cut from last year's shoots, with one or two leaves (you do not need to cut cuttings from the shoots of the current year, since young shoots should bloom). For faster rooting, which on average is about 1.5 months, you can cut off the top half of each leaf, sprinkling the cut with crushed coal. Cuttings can be rooted in water or in an earthen mixture consisting of equal parts of universal soil and perlite. With water, everything is clear - just cut a stalk 10-15 cm long, 1 sheet is enough and put it in a glass of water in a warm and bright place - at least 25 ° C. It is advisable to change the water every other day so that it does not bloom.
Cuttings root well in a zip bag. To do this, on the bottom of the zip package, you need to pour universal earth in half with vermiculite (the mixture must be sterilized), the soil moisture is moderate, without dampness (spray it 2-3 times from a spray bottle). A stalk must be placed in the bag, so that the lower node is in the ground. Close the zip-bag tightly and hang it on the window, in a bright place (it can burn on the west and south), best on the southeast side. Usually it is not even required to spray additionally - inside the bag the humidity is about 90%. When the roots appear, and this may take 1.5-2 months, you will see them through the package. It is important here that the soil is free of pathogenic bacteria, 30-60 seconds in the microwave is enough to process the substrate. When rooting, you can use root stimulants (heteroauxin, zircon, root).
After the cutting takes root, it is planted in a small pot, up to 10cm in diameter. But the greenhouse conditions must be preserved, otherwise the rooted cutting may die. To do this, the pot can be placed in a transparent bag, straightened its edges, but not tied. Make sure there is enough heat and light. The rooted cutting can spend its first wintering in a warm place. And only when the young leaves begin to vigorously grow, the pot can be released from the bag and looked after as usual.
Stefanotis from seed
If you did not buy the seeds, but got them from your fruit, they need to be dried within 24 hours before planting. By the way, if your stefanotis fruit is ripening, and you do not want to pluck it ahead of time, but are afraid that you will lose the seeds, then you can put a bag of transparent nylon tights on the fruit, then if the fruit bursts, the seeds will not scatter.
When planting in a mixture of perlite (vermiculite) and peat, the seeds are not buried, but only slightly pressed into the soil with a finger, and covered with glass from above. The substrate must be sterilized, the seeds must be pre-soaked for 2 days in water. If you have the opportunity to collect loose leaf humus in the forest - this is the best substrate for sowing seeds, it is enough to warm it up in the microwave for 1-1.5 minutes.
A dish with seeds is placed in a bright, sunny place, if necessary, for heating, the temperature should be at least 26 ° C. Germination takes 4 weeks to 2 months. It is important to prevent waterlogging of the soil, but the air around crops should be very humid. The soil should become almost dry before it can be moistened (better by spraying than watering), at the same time you need to open glass or film to wash off condensation and ventilate the crops. Dive into individual pots about 5 cm in diameter, no more when the first pair of true leaves opens. Remove the film or bag from seedlings 3-4 days after seed germination. Here it is important that the seedlings have enough light and humidity, since the film has been removed, you need to periodically spray the seedlings. The seed caps usually peel off on their own, if not willing,you need help - wet the cap and gently try to remove it with a toothpick. Lighting, if necessary, with fluorescent or LED lamps, so that the daylight hours are at least 14 hours.
Stephanotis does not bloom
The plant blooms poorly or does not bloom for several reasons:
- if he was not provided with a cool rest period - about 14 ° C (above 18 ° C is already bad);
- if the transplant is not made on time (at the time of bud formation);
- if the pot is too large, all the power is spent on the formation of roots;
- if the fertilizer is incorrectly selected (with a large proportion of nitrogen, and not phosphorus-potassium, as for flowering ones);
- if you planted stephanotis in too fat, organic-rich soil;
- if there is not enough light (on the northern windowsill or another window where there is little sunlight);
- if the pot changes location or the flower is turned on the windowsill;