Indoor Pepper Capsicum

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Indoor Pepper Capsicum
Indoor Pepper Capsicum
Video: Indoor Pepper Capsicum
Video: Growing Red Bell Pepper Time Lapse - Seed To Fruit in 115 Days 2023, February
Anonim
indoor pepper
indoor pepper

The nightshade family. Homeland - Central and South America. In nature, there are about 50 species of representatives of this genus.

Types of indoor peppers

The following types are grown as indoor peppers in pots:

  • Annual capsicum (vegetable) Capsicum annuum
  • Cayenne pepper Capsicum frutescens
  • Chinese Pepper or Habanero Pepper Capsicum chinense
  • Downy pepper Capsicum pubescens (or rocoto pepper)
  • Berry pepper Capsicum baccatum

All of these types belong to the group of Chilean peppers, any of them can be called capsicum or chili. The homeland of each species is the tropical regions of South and Central America. Various types of peppers have a similar structure - they are all half-shrubs with a non-lignified stem (except for berry pepper - it can grow as a tree), in nature they reach 1 m in height or more. The leaves are alternately arranged, often sit on short petioles, lanceolate, narrowed at the end. Flowers are single axillary. The corolla of the flower is 5-7 petal Hollow, multi-seeded fruits. Further there are specific differences characteristic for a particular species and variety.

You also need to know that a botanical name like Chili or Bitter pepper does not exist. These are groups that unite peppers in taste. So, some varieties of Capsicum annuum and many varieties of Capsicum frutescens belong to hot pepper. By the way, it is impossible to grow bitter and sweet peppers on the same windowsill - they are capable of pollinating (you just need to shake the pot of pepper), and give out the fruits of not quite pleasant taste.

Capsicum annuum

We know it under the name vegetable pepper, paprika or bulgarian pepper. Many varieties are called sweet peppers, but there are varieties that are quite spicy and with bitterness. The shape of the fruit is cone-shaped, in various variations - pot-bellied and elongated, even and bending, etc. The colors of the fruits are also very diverse: bright red, yellow, orange, purple, green, light green.

Annual varieties of capsicum for growing in pots:

  • Tepin Tepin
  • California wonder
  • Yolo Wonder
  • Redskin Redskin
  • Diana Diana
  • Siberian prince
  • Quintisho Quintisho
  • Iko Iko Iko Iko
  • Cherry bomb
  • Golden Baby Sweet Mini Bell Baby Yellow

These varieties differ in medium or compact growth from 35 to 60 cm. But in principle, you can grow absolutely any varieties in pots. It all depends on the width of the windowsill - large bushes take up a lot of space, and growing peppers in a room even with supplementary lighting is almost unrealistic - this is a very light-loving culture.

pepper cherry bomb
pepper cherry bomb

Annual pepper '' Cherry bomb ''

Habañero pepper
Habañero pepper

Chinese pepper '' Habanero Chocolate ''

chinese pepper
chinese pepper

Chinese pepper 'Habanero Orange'

Chinese pepper Capsicum chinense or Habanero Pepper

Pepper is native to Central America (Chile), from the Caribbean. Plants are bushy, usually with tough, erect stems, large, thin and wrinkled green leaves. The flowers are usually small and white, with five petals, 2-6 flowers per node. The size and shape of the peppers is very diverse - from small and rounded to elongated pods, sometimes in the shape of a lantern. Capsicum is the hottest Chinese pepper, when grown in a pot it has a very decorative appearance. But you need to know that these plants are distinguished by relatively slow growth with a longer growing season compared to many other species. In addition, Chinese pepper seeds take longer to germinate and fruits take longer to ripen, especially in temperate climates. The total time from sowing to harvest is around 80 to 120 days. For home cultivation, varieties are suitable:

  • Santa Lucia Saint Lucia
  • Devil's Tongue
  • Devil's Yellow
  • group of varieties Habanero Habanero

Cayenne pepper Capsicum frutescens

This is a spicy variety of chili pepper - there are annuals or short-lived perennials (decorative maximum 2-3 years). The fruits are often erect, small, conical in shape, sticking out like candles 1.5-2 cm long. Coloring from pale yellow to bright red. Selection is underway to improve decorative qualities. This type of pepper has a wonderful variety Black Pearl Black Pearl is an ornamental leafy plant with very dark purple leaves. When ripe, fruits are red, sharp. You may also be interested in other varieties:

  • Tabasco Tabasco
  • Piri Piri Piri piri or African Bird's Eye or African Devil
  • Limo (Limo) Limo
  • Bombilla Bombillito
pepper cherry bomb
pepper cherry bomb

Cayenne

berry pepper
berry pepper

pepper Berry pepper 'Bishop's Crown'

pepper in a pot
pepper in a pot

Fluffy pepper Rocoto

Downy pepper Capsicum pubescens

In this type of pepper, the entire aerial part: stems, leaves, petioles, peduncles and flowers are covered with thick light green pubescence, and on the leaves there are hairs even on the upper side. Leaves are ovoid, up to 5-12 cm long, 2.5-4 cm wide, tapering at the top, and the base is wedge-shaped. Flowers with a purple corolla. A very remarkable feature of this species is its ability to withstand lower temperatures than other plant species of pepper. And besides, this species is almost the longest-living - in nature up to 15 years! And by the way, there is an ampelous variation of fluffy pepper. The fruits of fluffy peppers are used fresh (salsa, salads), added to minced meat, dried as a seasoning.

For the sake of fruit in pots, you can grow a group of varieties of Rocoto peppers Rocoto

Berry pepper Capsicum baccatum

A wonderful houseplant - this is one that can be grown quietly for several years in a pot! In nature, it reaches 1.5 m in height, at home about 80 cm. It tolerates pruning well. This is a sprawling small-leaved shrub. On sale you can find seeds of the Bishop's Crown variety - it forms small fruits not conical in shape, but similar to the bishop's headdress (in our opinion, they are more like squash). They have a sweet and light spicy taste. When grown in greenhouses, the yield can reach 50 peppers per bush, when grown in a pot, a maximum of 20 peppers, but this is an excellent result! Other varieties are more productive, on a sunny window up to 50 peppercorns:

  • Lemon Drop Lemon Drop
  • White Crystal Cristal Blanco

Pepper care

Attention: peppers are perennial plants, they can be grown for several years, subject to proper agricultural technology. Do not be confused by the name of vegetable pepper annuum - annual (annual), it does not reflect reality - this type of pepper is also perennial. In nature, shrubs live for years. But the decorative value decreases every year due to strong depletion from the rapid fertility of this vegetable, and most importantly, at home there is no way to provide a cool winter and a lot of light. Since the aesthetic beauty of a potted plant is very important from a grower's point of view, it is easier to grow every year or two new plants from seed.

Caring for peppers in pots is aimed at obtaining the most decorative look, but it is good when covered with fruits that can be eaten. Therefore, the main thing that we need to know is that pepper, as a tropical culture, loves warmth, light, good watering and sufficient nutrition during the growth period. If you want an already grown potted pepper, you can buy it on the OBI network or from grandmothers who sell seedlings in the spring. During the flowering of peppers, it is required to periodically shake the bushes - this way the fruits are better tied.

If your peppers continue to bear fruit in the fall, you need to adjust the number of fruits, otherwise the plant may not be able to pull out such a burden - if the peppers are large-fruited, leave no more than one fruit on the bush, if small-fruited - a maximum of three. For hot and bitter chili peppers, green peppers can also be eaten.

Temperature

The optimum temperature for growth is 18-24 ° С, at night it is cooler - up to 15-18 ° С. The room should be well ventilated. You can keep the peppers on the balcony or in the garden all summer long, and in the fall they bring them into the apartment, where the fruits will ripen. If in winter you do not have enough light, there is no way to make good additional lighting, lowering the temperature to 15-16 ° C is simply necessary. Watering at the same time is rare, only so that the soil does not dry out completely.

Lighting

Full sunlight, at least 4 hours a day of direct sun. Grows well in south and west windows.

Watering

The peppers need a fairly abundant watering - the soil should be moist all the time, not dry out in the depths of the pot, but dry out in the upper third of the soil before the next watering. After abundant watering, it is advisable to loosen the topsoil.

Air humidity: Periodically (once a day) pepper is sprayed with clean (filtered or boiled) water.

Top dressing

A month after the transplant, top dressing is required. It is better to use special fertilizers for vegetables, in which there is a greater proportion of phosphorus than nitrogen, which is necessary for better fruiting, for example:

  • Dunamis for vegetables NPK: 2.5% -2% -1%, pH% 7 - 7.5
  • Gardener fertilizer for vegetables NPK: 5% -6.5% -6.5%, Ca - 2%; Mg - 1%; Fe - 0.16%; S - 0.70%; B - 0.09%; Cu - 0.01%; Zn - 0.01%; Humates not less than 1%
  • joy humic fertilizer for tomatoes, peppers, eggplants - liquid
  • Fertika-lux (flower)
  • Compound mineral: take 1 g of superphosphate and 1 g of potassium salt for 1 liter of water

Top dressing should be carried out 1 time in 10 days in spring and summer, in winter 1 time per month. We do not feed other indoor plants in winter, but the peppers need it (provided they are not cut and well lit).

Transfer

Indoor peppers can be grown in the same store-bought grounds that are sold for seedlings of vegetables and peppers. For example, soil Russian Fields "Biopergnoy. Tomato and Pepper" (with the addition of biohumus), universal soil "Terra Vita", universal peat soil "Ambulance", etc.

You can also take just garden soil and add the necessary fertilizers to it, for example, in joy granules "Fertilizer for Tomatoes, Peppers, Eggplants" or "Buyskie fertilizers for vegetables" - they are applied dry into the soil, not by eye, but better weigh on an electronic kitchen scale. Stir the soil thoroughly.

By the way, peppers are plants susceptible to many diseases of vegetable crops - phytophthora, wilt, tobacco mosaic virus. If you don't want to ruin your labors, be sure to sterilize the ground, for example, in the oven (30 minutes at 200 ° C).

The size of the pot for an adult pepper is approximately 25 cm in diameter. Before that, plant and transfer the peppers into any suitable container for the size of the root system.

Seed peppers

pepper in a pot
pepper in a pot

Seed germination is generally good - 80-90%. Pre-soak the seeds in a slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate. If, when soaking, the seeds surfaced - they are not viable, you can throw it away.

Capsicum seeds are sown in spring or at the end of winter in wide bowls, in a mixture of peat and leafy soil, sealed to a depth of 1 cm. There must be holes at the bottom of the bowl for water drainage. Drainage is not necessary - it does not take long for them to grow there, and therefore a layer of soil is enough 7-10 cm. When the first pair of true leaves grows up in the seedlings, they need to be cut into separate pots. Deepening - up to cotyledonous leaves.

Capsicum blooms and bears fruit more readily and abundantly if the pot is not large for it, but exactly at the root or slightly cramped. It is more correct, if necessary, to transfer them (without disturbing the roots) as they grow into a larger pot.

The most important thing in caring for pepper seedlings is to provide maximum light. If the seedlings are stretched out, the plants will initially be weak, you will not get either decorativeness or harvest. Therefore, as soon as shoots appear, and the days are cloudy, turn on the lamps. These can be special phytolamps, simple luminaires or LEDs. If you have sunny windowsills, then a good morning sun is enough. But as they grow, the seedlings of peppers need to be turned 180 degrees on the window so that the crown develops evenly. This can be done every day or every other day. If you notice that the seedlings have begun to tilt their tops towards the glass - it's time to sound the alarm and look for a more sunny window or hang lamps nearby.

The second important point is watering without extremes, neither overdrying, nor overmoistening is allowed. The ability to uniformly absorb moisture is greatly influenced by the structure of the soil, it is advisable to check it in advance - to water well-dried soil and see if water flows down the walls instantly in a saucer - this is a poor soil structure. The correct soil should absorb water evenly, like a sponge, and very little and not immediately flow down to the pallet. But it is also important that the soil also dries quickly, so in order to improve the structure of the soil, you can add not sphagnum moss to the soil, but coconut substrate from briquettes or bags. It is similar to tea leaves, but is poor in nutrients. If you have to use it a lot, then you need to add humus or vermicompost to the soil.

Reproduction of peppers by cuttings

So we come to the moment of the peppers' many years. If the pepper bush wintered under not quite suitable conditions (too dark and hot) or bore too much fruit for the first year, by spring or with the end of fruiting, it may take on a completely miserable appearance. Shoots are strongly bare from the base, leaves are sparse. The second year there are very few fruits, the third - it will be lucky if a couple ripens. There is not always time or desire to grow fresh seedlings, but it is quite possible to root cuttings.

All you have to do is trim off the tops of the shoots, the healthiest and strongest ones, and place them in water to root. Pepper takes root quite easily, you can plant 2-3 cuttings together in one pot. Within 1.5-2 months you can get a rejuvenated flowering bush.

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