Fuchsia - Growing And Care At Home, Photo

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Fuchsia - Growing And Care At Home, Photo
Fuchsia - Growing And Care At Home, Photo
Video: Fuchsia - Growing And Care At Home, Photo
Video: #StayHome & See How to Grow & Care of Fuchsia Plant #WithMe I घर में ऐसे करे फ्यूशिया की देखभाल 2023, February
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The fireweed family. The genus of fuchsia has just over 100 species of evergreen shrubs, or herbaceous, ampelous forms. Most of them grow in the undergrowth of the foothills and highlands of Central and South America, three species and one interspecific hybrid were discovered in New Zealand, and one in Tahiti.

Fuchsia Fuchsia was first discovered on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola (Dominican Republic) around 1696-1697 by the French monk and botanist Charles Plumier, during his third expedition to the Greater Antilles. He named the new genus after the famous German botanist Leonard Fuchs.

Fuchsia has a huge variety of varieties due to the structure of the flowers. They are bisexual, drooping, with long pedicels. In some, first of all, specific fuchsias, the peculiarities of the flower structure are that the sepals practically repeat the tubular shape of the corolla, are brightly colored, and even larger than the petals themselves.

In the majority of other varieties, the corolla tube is short, the sepals are brightly colored, star-like spread out to the sides. The petals are large, wide, and form a fluffy "skirt". Sepals and petals can be of the same color, or they can have different, contrasting colors. The stamens and pistil are prominent, clearly visible.

fuchsia
fuchsia
fuchsia hybrid
fuchsia hybrid
  • Fuchsia magellanic Fuchsia magellanica is native to Southern Argentina, Chile, and Southeast Brazil. Evergreen shrub, from 1.5 to 2 m in height, stems are reddish, slightly pubescent, well branched. Leaves are opposite, oval-lanceolate, 4-5 cm long, pointed at the end, with a finely toothed margin. Flowers are collected in terminal racemose inflorescences drooping on long pedicels. The fruits are black berries. Bloom from July to September.
  • Fuchsia Bolivian Fuchsia boliviana, a synonym for Fuchsia boliviensis, comes from the mountains of Guatemala, Ecuador, Bolivia, Argentina. Branched, evergreen shrubs on average about 1 m tall. Leaves are elliptical, pointed at the end, with a finely toothed margin, reaching 10-15 cm in length and 5-6 cm in width. Flowers are collected in multi-flowered drooping apical racemes. The perianth tube is about 6 cm, the free tips of the petals are 1.5 cm in length, in sepals it is longer - up to 2 cm. It blooms in spring in March-April.
  • Fuchsia boneless Fuchsia excorticata - known as a fuchsia tree, native to New Zealand. Compared to other shrub species of fuchsia, this is a tree-like deciduous species - they reach a height of 5-15 m.It is rarely found as a houseplant, although the bonsai would come out of it gorgeous. The trunks of fuchsia fuchsia are not erect, but lodging, well-branching, on average 20 cm in diameter, at the base of the tree is about 70 cm. A characteristic feature is a peeling light brown bark, which hangs on the trunks in flakes, in places it is completely absent. The leaves are small, elliptical, pointed at the end, about 8 cm long, 3-3.5 cm wide. The flowers are small, the petals are not visible at all, i.e. what we call a flower is four sepals fused at the base into a lilac-violet tube and green at the tips.Gradually, the flowers become pink, almost red. The pollen is unusual - blue-violet. Fruits - oblong purple berries, sweet - the aborigines cook jam and jams from them.

    fuchsia beskoraya
    fuchsia beskoraya
    fuchsia shiny
    fuchsia shiny
    fuchsia magellan
    fuchsia magellan
    fuchsia paniculata
    fuchsia paniculata
  • Fuchsia brilliant Fuchsia fulgens - originally from Mexico. Well-branching shrub up to 1-1.5 m tall. The leaves are opposite, cordate-oval, with a finely toothed margin, reaching 15-20 cm in length and 8-10 cm in width. Stems and leaves are glabrous (without pubescence). Flowers are collected in apical racemose inflorescences hanging from the severity of the flowers. Perianth tube up to 10 cm long, bright red, purple-burgundy at the base. The free tips of the sepals are 1 cm long, greenish at the ends. Petals are shorter than sepals, red. The stamens are long, peeking out of the flower by 1-1.5 cm. The fruits are edible berries. Flowering occurs almost all summer - from June to August.
  • Fuchsia paniculata Fuchsia paniculata - its homeland stretches from Mexico to Panama. This is a rare species in culture, flowers are collected in erect loose brushes. Lilac sepals and petals fused into a short tube. The free tips of the sepals are longer than the petals, spread out to the sides by 2 cm. The petals are about 135 cm, the stamens are long with bright pink anthers, the pistil is short. Leaves are opposite, oblong, narrowed at the end, 12-15 cm long, 5-6 cm wide, on short reddish petioles. Bushes about 1 m high.
Fuchsia
Fuchsia
Fuchsia
Fuchsia

At home, there are and continue to appear many different varieties of fuchsia, which are born in the process of hybridization. It is difficult to describe all the varieties - there are already more than two thousand of them. Often the origin of these varieties is not even mentioned, the name should include fuchsia x hybrida, but often only the name of the genus (Fuchsia) and the variety (for example Annabelle) remains. Fuchsias hybrid differ in the shape and structure of flowers - simple, double, semi-double, and their color range - white, pink, red, purple, purple, speckled, etc.

fuchsia varietal
fuchsia varietal
fuchsia varietal
fuchsia varietal
fuchsia hybrid
fuchsia hybrid
fuchsia hybrid
fuchsia hybrid

Fuchsia care

Growing and caring for fuchsia at home is not particularly difficult, but problems can arise in winter. In a hot apartment on a warm windowsill, fuchsias will be uncomfortable - the plants quickly lose their leaves in the lower part of the stems, they are severely depleted by spring, then radical pruning is required to rejuvenate the bushes.

Temperature: moderate in summer, the optimal temperature for the growth and flowering of fuchsias is 18-24 ° C, at a higher temperature, which, of course, cannot be avoided in summer, the growth of fuchsias slows down, and the flowers fade faster. At temperatures above 26-30 ° C, fuchsia sheds flowers and loses the lower leaves, so hot summer balconies are not for her. In general, this is an ideal greenhouse plant. Beautiful varietal hybrids are more adapted to indoor keeping than species specimens, but not enough to do without cool wintering for years. In the homeland of fuchsias, winter temperatures drop to + 8-10 ° C, sometimes up to + 5 ° C, and for a room culture, the ideal wintering temperature for fuchsias is 10-12 ° C. This is the key to plant health, successful flowering and longevity, because fuchsias live for a very long time, therefore they are ideal for the formation of bonsai.

Read also Fuchsia flower - care and reproduction - in the section Popular indoor plants.

Lighting: fuchsia is very light-requiring, while the light should be diffused, from direct sunlight fuchsia can get burns. Fuchsia will grow well on eastern windows. Prefers direct sun in the morning or evening (before 11:00 and after 16:00). In a room with a south window, it can get hot even with shading, so pay attention to the maximum temperature in the room.

Watering: in the summer you need to water fuchsia abundantly, the soil should be slightly damp inside the pot all the time, but have time to dry out in the upper part of the soil. If there is no extreme heat, fuchsia even tolerates some overdrying (no more than one day). When too dry, fuchsia sheds buds and flowers. But waterlogging should be avoided - if the soil is still damp, watering is not necessary. To avoid waterlogging, it is necessary to select the right soil, and drainage at the bottom of the pot. Fuchsias do not like watering with hard water, use filtered and / or boiled water, including for spraying.

Important: In winter, watering fuchsia is moderate or limited, depending on the temperature, for example, at 15-18 ° C, it is possible once every 10 days, at 5-8 ° C - once a month. Be sure to slightly loosen the soil around the sides of the pot after watering.

Top dressing: from March to September, fuchsia is fed with mineral fertilizer for flowering indoor plants. Such as are great: Fertika-lux, Pocon for flowering plants, Uniflor-bud. Top dressing is best done weekly, but the fertilizer should be taken in half the dose. Those. to feed on the principle - it is better more often, but little by little.

Air humidity: in their homeland, fuchsias grow in a rather humid climate, so they prefer air humidity of about 50-60%. The higher the temperature, the more painful dry air is perceived by plants, this is especially noticeable in winter. In summer, fuchsia is periodically sprayed, but usually there is enough natural air humidity (you only need to spray when there is no rain for a long time). But since October, you can place fuchsias on a pallet with wet pebbles or sphagnum moss, if the temperature is about 18 ° C or higher. At lower temperatures, it is not necessary to increase the air humidity.

Fuchsia from seed
Fuchsia from seed

Transplant: Fuchsia is transplanted annually in the spring. In general, fuchsia is not demanding on the soil, but it should have a slightly acidic reaction: pH = 5.5-6, be sufficiently nutritious and loose (dry out quickly). The approximate composition of the substrate: 2 parts of sod land, 1 part of peat (or leafy land), 1/2 part of pine bark and 1/2 part of coarse sand. Another version of the soil mixture: 2 parts of garden soil with the addition of compost (from a previously fertilized bed), 1 part of vermiculite, 1 part of coconut substrate, 1/2 part of pine bark. In the pot, it is imperative to pour 4-5 cm of drainage (expanded clay or pieces of wine cork). If a reddish-white salt deposit has formed on the surface of the earth in a pot, it must be removed and filled with fresh soil.

Fuchsia propagation

Fuchsias are propagated by stem cuttings in spring or summer, which are best rooted in water, planted in pots when the roots grow by about 4-5 cm. Cuttings can be made throughout the spring-summer season. Cuttings cut off the current growth, not yet lignified. You can root fuchsias immediately in a substrate consisting of equal parts of peat, sphagnum moss (cut with scissors) and vermiculite. Not too moist, rather slightly moist. Place the pot in a transparent bag, which is tied so that there is a large opening for fresh air.

Fuchsia seeds quickly lose their germination, so carefully look at the date on the package. But even at the same time, the germination rate can be 20-50%. If you have seeds in the fall or winter, and there is a question to sow or wait for spring, then it is better to sow, but immediately, with the emergence of seedlings, organize supplementary lighting with fluorescent lamps.

It is better to sow seeds in a greenhouse (you can use a plastic box from a cake or pastries), in a mixture of peat (or leafy earth) and vermiculite, in equal parts. The optimum temperature is 18-20 ° C. The seeds are not buried in the soil, they are simply spread over the surface. Moisten evenly from a spray bottle. The seeds are prone to decay, so it is better to sprinkle them directly on the substrate immediately after planting with a weak solution of a fungicide (foundation powder at the very tip of a knife on half a glass of water). It is very important to keep the soil constantly slightly moist, but be sure to ventilate twice a day for 30 minutes. Fuchsia seedlings appear in about a month, at this time it is important to provide them with a lot of diffused light, not to dry out, and not to overmoisten. You can plant seedlings in pots after the second pair of real leaves unfold.The pots are placed on a tray with wet sphagnum moss, or periodically sprayed. You can start feeding one month later, after planting in pots.

Fuchsia shtamb
Fuchsia shtamb

The formation of a fuchsia stock tree, Svetlana Larsen (svph) shares her experience:

The first year we form the main trunk. To do this, in early spring, when fuchsias begin to grow intensively, choose a young, as long and straight branch as possible. The variety should not be ampelous. A tree will not work from an ampelous plant. After rooting, we plant it in a large pot (since it has to grow quickly) and tie it to a long stick. I advise you to pick a stick according to the future desired height - it is easier to measure the growth of a tree, and you immediately have an idea of ​​what height you want.

Further, for several months, it is necessary to regularly tie up as it grows and remove all lateral shoots and flowers. When the branch begins to approach the end of the stick, then you can leave the upper shoots and flowers. After reaching the desired height, we pinch the top and begin to form lateral shoots. In the first year, this will completely fail. And it doesn't matter. Let the rest of summer grow and bloom as she wants. Only we constantly remove the lateral shoots below the mark that we chose for ourselves as a starting point. It can be 50 cm high or higher.

You can form a crown not round, but pyramidal. This is already to your taste. It is much more important to provide good conditions for the winter. Fuchsia should be placed in a cold basement. But do not forget to water it occasionally, since the earthen lump should not dry out. But in the spring it is necessary to cut very strongly, in the full sense, leaving only hemp from the side shoots. And then the formation of the future skeleton begins: we cut out all the branches that grow “wrong”. The branches should grow evenly in all directions, not interfere with each other. Usually, during the second summer, a vigorous variety forms a "skeleton" completely. Well, all subsequent years, care consists in a strong spring pruning of all shoots on the "skeleton".

Fuchsia pests

Most often, fuchsias are harmed by spider mites and whiteflies.

A mite lesion can be identified by irregular yellow spots on the leaves, puncture points that can be seen in the leaf lumen, a thin cobweb (sometimes only visible with a magnifying glass) on the back of the leaf and in internodes. On the underside of the leaf, you can also see tiny white dandruff-like skins. Fuchsia affected by a tick should be treated with acaricide preparations (Apollo, Vermitic, Nissoran, etc.) It is quite problematic to properly wet the leaves on both sides, there will definitely be a secluded corner where the chemical solution did not get, but it is very important to achieve 100% processing of the leaves at both sides. Therefore, it is easier to prepare a solution in a bucket, and dip the plant "head" down there, hold for 2-3 minutes. Allow to dry, do not rinse with clean water. Sometimes, if you can't get rid of the tick,you have to cut the plant heavily to make it easier to process the rest.

The whitefly is found in the form of small white flies, for which fuchsia, like a tree of passion, is extremely attractive. On the reverse side, they lay small white eggs in a ring clutch. The easiest way to deal with whitefly is systemic insecticides - actara or confidor. Thoroughly moisten the soil with the solution, and wash the aboveground part under a warm shower. Usually 2 treatments (watering) are enough to get rid of pests.

Problems of growing fuchsia

Fuchsia cannot be called an unpretentious plant - it puts forward too many conditions for flower growers captivated by its beauty. The most important thing is wintering. If fuchsia is not given rest for 4-5 months, it will inevitably degenerate and die. Solve this problem as best they can. You can place it in a cellar or basement (at 5 ° C, lighting is not needed, and the shoots are cut off, leaving only skeletal branches), you can place fuchsia on a heated glazed balcony, you can fence off the window sill in the room with glass or plastic wrap, but the temperature on the windowsill will be 10-12 ° C, if you have wooden windows, the temperature will remain high with plastic windows. And as an option - a fenced-off corner on the staircase (for many, it is more than cool in the stairwell in winter).

Another option to save the plant is to cut the bush in the fall, root the cuttings, and discard the old plant until it dies itself. But it is natural not to allow our grandchildren to grow a beautiful bole, but bonsai.

Fuchsia can shed flowers if its pot is turned upside down to the light or put in a new place, so the fuchsia that is picking up buds and blooming fuchsia is not rearranged from place to place. Fuchsia blooms just as badly, it drops its color if the summer is hot, and with excessive or insufficient watering.

Each spring, fuchsia is cut to about 1/3 of the length of the shoots, which stimulates the formation of new buds. During the summer, fuchsia can be pinched repeatedly to form the desired plant shape.

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