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The family of cereals. The homeland of bamboos is tropical and subtropical countries - Australia, Asia, America.
The most real bamboo is the Bambusa genus, which has about 130 species. Species Common bamboo Bambusa vulgaris - in nature it is very large - up to 20-30 m in height, evergreen plants with a powerful rhizome, with geniculate yellow stems, and spreading leaves. There are also varieties with variegated leaves. This bamboo is used for decorative purposes, but due to its tall growth only in landscaping gardens, in China and the USA.
bamboo Umbrella bamboo or Fargesia Murieli
But besides this, there are other plants that have different botanical names, but are referred to in one word as "bamboo". To understand this, you need to look at the taxonomy in more detail. So, in the Poaceae family of Cereals, there is a subfamily of Bamboo Bambusoideae, which, in turn, consists of two tribes: Olera Olyreae (we are not interested in it) and Bambuseae Bamboo - it is its representatives that decorate gardens and windowsills.
The Bamboo tribe Bambuseae includes about 9 subtribes, of which the aforementioned genus Bamboo Bambusa is of interest, as well as:
The genus Pleioblastus Pleioblastus is the homeland of China and Japan, it has about 20 species. Among them there are many dwarf bamboos, which can be found on sale in Russia as indoor plants. These are dwarf bamboo Pleioblastus pygmaeus (bush about 45 cm high), golden bamboo Pleioblastus auricomus (bush up to 70 cm high), etc. Very powerful rhizome, spreading and lush bushes. The leaves are lanceolate, on average 8-15 cm long. True, the taxonomy of this genus is somewhat controversial - some scientists attribute bamboos of this genus not to independent Pleioblastus, but to the genus Arundinaria Arundinaria.
The genus Arundinaria Arundinaria - these are reeds, in simple terms, not really bamboos, but plants extremely similar to ordinary bamboos. Among them, there are practically no tall tree-like ones, with the exception of the giant Arundinaria gigantea, which reaches 6 m in height, all the rest are low bushes and grasses, and they are very slightly decorative, rather like weeds, the only species worthy of attention Arundinaria variegata is green leaves with wide white stripes. In Europe and the USA, they are not used in landscape design, but here they sell representatives of another genus Fargesia under this name. And the confusion, again, arose because the genus Arundinaria and Fargesia are both included in the subtribe Arundinaria, but when denoting the plant sold, it is customary to indicate the name of the genus and species, but not the tribe and subtribe. Therefore, if you bought a plant,on which Arundinaria is written, it is most likely Fargesia.
Fargesia Fargesia is a genus of reeds, with about 40 species, very ornamental grasses and shrubs, popular in gardening in warm climates, and also grown as pot plants. In nature, these are rather tall shrubs, some up to 4-6 m in height, but they are very well formed and a compact shape can be maintained. Fargesia murielae Fargesia Murieli is popular - with zigzag yellowish stems, lanceolate leaves, pointed at the end. Fargesia brilliant Fargesia nitida is also quite decorative.
All representatives of the Bambuca tribe Bambuseae, to which all the aforementioned genera belong, need similar conditions of detention.
Bamboo - home care
Real bamboo is a rather rare houseplant, at home they can reach 1.5 m in height, but are well formed by pruning, often grown as a bonsai.
Temperature: preferably moderate, in heat above 26 ° C the tips of the leaves may dry out. In winter, bamboo is more suitable for greenhouse content - a bright cool place, at a temperature of about 12-13 ° C. Although in nature these plants can withstand sub-zero temperatures when planted in pots, they should not be kept in sub-zero temperatures in winter. On the balcony (glazed or insulated), you can keep it almost until the end of October, and take it out in the spring in April, when the temperature is above zero. Watering is extremely rare.
Lighting: bright sunny place with some sun in the morning or evening. It is desirable that the bamboo gets 4-5 hours of sunshine per day. On the south side, the leaves burn out and dry, no, they will not die in the sun, but they will have a less decorative appearance. On the northern side, bamboos are dark - liquid bushes, leaves are rare. In summer, it is better to take the plants out into the open air, in a place protected from the wind. From August to the end of January, no shading is required on the sunny side. By the way, keep in mind that bamboos are characterized by the exposure of the lower part of the stems - this is not a lack of light, but the specifics of the plant.
Watering: plentiful in summer, after drying the top layer of the earth. Do not overdry the earthen coma. But waterlogging should also be avoided, the soil should not be too moist, but have time to dry out before the next watering in the upper part of the pot. In winter, watering is moderate, depending on the temperature, if it is below 16 ° C, then after complete drying of the soil in a pot, if less than 10 ° C, watering is very rare, about once a month.
Top dressing: during the growth period from April to August, every two weeks, bamboo is fed with special complex fertilizers for indoor plants. You can use "Rainbow", "Ideal", "Giant", etc
Humidity: Bamboo likes to regularly spray its leaves with warm water. During the heating season, the only salvation is a humidifier.
Transplant: young plants are transplanted annually in spring, over 3-4 years old in 2-3 years. The soil should be nutritious - 2 parts of sod, 1 part of leaf, 1 part of humus earth, 2 parts of small pebbles or vermiculite. The root system is quite powerful, in nature it is invasive, widely spreads and displaces, suppresses other plants. Therefore, the pot should be spacious, large specimens are planted in tubs. It is imperative to put drainage on the bottom of the pot.
Tree of happiness
Reproduction: bamboo reproduces by dividing the bush when transplanting. Just shake off the roots from the old soil, cut off a part of the root ball with several stems from the edge of the bush with a sharp knife. Sprinkle juicy cuts with crushed charcoal. Plant a little more root ball in the pot. Watering is neat for the first weeks. Do not transplant and divide during the hot summer period.
If you want to bring home a small bamboo plant while traveling anywhere in China, you can do so by separating the root sucker - at the base of the bush, along with a small piece of rhizome.
Tree of happiness
A tree of happiness, Chinese bamboo or bamboo of happiness - with this name, a plant is sold in stores in the form of several tied tubes, with rosettes of green leaves. In fact, this plant has nothing to do with real bamboo, it is one of the varieties of dracaena Dracaena fragrans.
In China and other Asian countries, this plant is considered a symbol of happiness and well-being in the home and family. "Chinese bamboo" is usually sold not in pots with soil, but in pots or vases of water. Caring for this plant (dracaena) is very simple - change the water, periodically adding mineral fertilizers to it and wipe the leaves from dust. It can be planted in a pot of soil, and grown like a regular houseplant.