Table of contents:
- Types of philodendrons
- Philodendron care
- Philodendron transplant
- Propagation of philodendron
- Growing problems
Aroid family. Homeland rainforests of South America. In nature, according to various sources, there are from 350 to 900 species. The name of the genus comes from the Greek word philo or love and dendron or tree. Historical habitats are tropical rainforests, as well as river floodplains and foothills.
Among the representatives of this genus, there are tall tree-like or bushy plants, and vines. Most of them are epiphytes or semi-epiphytes. Some types of philodendrons can bloom indoors. The inflorescence is an ear. Others never bloom. Most species and hybrids of philodendron in nature have gigantic sizes and huge leaves, in room conditions, the size of the leaves is about half the size.
Aerial roots are formed in the leaf axils of all types of philodendrons. Most of all among the philodendrons are lianas. They grow very well, tied to a support, which is ideal as a tube with moss or coconut fiber. Aerial roots are not removed, but tied up or directed to the support. When buying large species of philodendrons, it should be borne in mind that they will need space in the room. With a lack of space, feathery leaves are often injured or torn. When set close to a window pane, if the plant is in a hallway or staircase, it may leave scars or frost-glass stains or sunburn.
Types of philodendrons
There is some confusion with the names of the various types of philodendrons. It was caused primarily by the assignment of various names. Take Philodendron hederaceum (Jacq.) Schott (1829), for example. This is an ivy philodendron, which is most often sold here as a climbing Philodendron. Synonyms appeared in this order: the species was originally described as Arum hederaceum in 1760, but as it turned out later, it had nothing to do with the genus Arum, and the correct name was given to it in 1829 by the Austrian botanist Heinrich Wilhelm Schott, well known for studying the family aroid. In subsequent years, other naturalists and botanists described the same species as Philodendron scandens (1853), Philodendron prieurianum (1853) Philodendron micans (1854), Philodendron cuspidatum, (1854), Philodendron microphyllum (1854),Philodendron oxycardium (1856), Philodendron oxyprorum (1856), Philodendron hoffmannii (1858), Philodendron acrocardium (1858), Philodendron pittieri (1899), Philodendron harlowii (1949), Philodendron miduhoi (1950). But the botanically correct name is Philodendron ivy Philodendron hederaceum.
Philodendron ivy Philodendron hederaceum
Philodendron warty Philodendron verrucosum
Philodendron tripartite Philodendron tripartitum
- Philodendron ivy Philodendron hederaceum, aka Philodendron climbing Philodendron scandens - this ampelous plant is well suited for growing in hanging baskets and pots. Leaves are small, leathery, heart-shaped - 8-15 cm long and 5-10 wide. There are several varieties and varieties. The original view with dark green leaves is one of the most shade-tolerant species. In addition, it is the smallest species of philodendron. Outwardly, it is very similar to scindapsus, but the leaves are much thinner - more tender.
- Philodendron verrucosa Philodendron verrucosum is a vine with heart-shaped green-bronze leaves, 15-17 cm long. Light stripes along the lateral veins look like a patterned pattern. The petioles are purple and covered with reddish hairs.
Philodendron Sello Philodendron selloum
Philodendron scaly Philodendron squamiferum
Philodendron Evans Philodendron x evansii (hybrid between P. bipinnatifidum and P. speciosum)
- Philodendron Sello Philodendron selloum is a tree-like plant with large, deeply pinnate leaves up to 60-80 cm long, ovoid. The edges of the cut leaves are not even, but curly. It grows at home about 1.5-1.7 m. The photo shows a still young plant - its leaves are weakly dissected, with time the cuts become deeper, in old leaves - almost to the central vein.
- Philodendron squamiferum Philodendron squamiferum is a large-leaved vine. Leaves are pinnate, young are three-lobed, adults are always five-lobed, about 25-30 cm long. Moreover, the extreme posterior lobes are much smaller in size than the central and lateral ones. Petioles are reddish with scaly hairs.
- Philodendron double-peristonized Philodendron bipennifolium - liana, five-lobed leaves, in nature they reach 70 cm in length, in indoor conditions up to 40 cm.Like other types of philodendrons, young leaves have a less pronounced form than old ones, very young leaves are almost whole. In old leaves, five lobes are necessarily expressed - the central one with a narrow isthmus, the posterior lobes with a wavy edge, the two outer lobes located at the base of the cutting are directed backwards with their tops. The lateral and posterior lobes are almost the same in size.
- Philodendron guitar Philodendron panduriforme is a liana that grows in rooms up to 2-2.5 m long, the leaves have three lobes, two lateral lobes are rounded, the central one is more than twice in length. In fact, there is no question of any guitar in the name of the species, the name of the species comes from the word pandura - literally translated as pandura - an ancient Greek instrument, similar to the Russian balalaika. How the name was assigned, history is silent, but the shape of the adult leaves of the guitar-shaped philodendron is not at all similar to the pandura, but it is quite suitable in size and shape. But the very young leaves, by the way, remind us in shape of an electric guitar. This philodendron species is often confused with the Philodendron bipennifolium species, especially when young plants are still growing.But in young leaves of a double-periston cut philodendron, five lobes are usually formed at once, then, then, featheriness appears more and more clearly.
Philodendron foot Philodendron pedatum
Philodendron guitar Philodendron panduriforme
Philodendron double- peristone cut Philodendron bipennifolium
- Philodendron pedatum Philodendron pedatum is a fast-growing vine. Leaves are glossy, cut into 5-11 lobes, 45 to 70 cm long. Petioles equal in size to the length of the leaf. Young leaves usually have 5 lobes; with age, the leaves become more cut. Synonym Philodendron lobular Philodendron laciniatum. Which of the two names - synonyms is more correct, scientists still argue. But it is Philodendron pedatum that is officially recognized.
- Philodendron spear Philodendron hastatum is a liana with glossy whole leaves, arrow-shaped or heart-shaped-elongated, up to 35-40 cm long, bright green, delicate color. It grows quickly, easily grows to the ceiling, needs support. It is found under a different name - Philodendron domesticum - but these are completely different species.
- The domestic philodendron Philodendron domesticum differs from the spear-shaped only in the shape of the leaf - the leaves are oval, slightly tapering at the end, while in the spear-shaped in the outlines of the leaf, you can see a clear arrowhead shape. The leaf shape of the home philodendron is similar to the blushing philodendron, but its petioles are always green.
Philodendron home Philodendron domesticum
Philodendron Martius Philodendron martianum
Philodendron incised Philodendron lacerum
- Philodendron Martius Philodendron martianum is not a vine, the plant forms a lush bush. Leaves are shiny, whole, oblong-heart-shaped, 40-50 cm long. The petioles are swollen (thickened), slightly shorter in size than the leaves. The thickened part of the petiole, resembles a spindle in shape, in adult specimens reaches a diameter of 7-8 cm. The species is also known as Philodendron cannifolium. This philodendron is planted in wide, but not too deep pots. To prevent it from tipping over to the bottom of the pot, in addition to drainage, it is better to put a heavy stone.
- Philodendron blushing Philodendron erubescens - liana, leaves are elongated-cordate, on red petioles, reach 40-50 cm in length. Petioles are somewhat shorter than leaves. The internodes are short, so the stem is not very long. Well suited for indoor cultivation, because grows small, up to 1.5 m, if tied to a support.
Philodendron blushing Medisa Philodendron erubescens 'Medisa'
Philodendron hybrid Prince of Orange Philodendron hybrid 'Prince of Orange'
Philodendron radiant Philodendron radiatum
- Philodendron elegans is a large-leaved liana, somewhat similar to a monster. The leaves are deeply feathery and divided into narrow segments up to the very central vein. The general outline of the leaf is oblong or ovate, about 40-50 cm wide and 50-70 cm long. Growing pretty fast. Needs support. There is also a different name - Philodendron narrowly dissected Philodendron angustisectum.
- Philodendron black and golden Philodendron melanochrysum is a large liana, heart-shaped leaves up to 60 cm long. Leaves with copper sheen and white veins. It grows rather slowly, but at home it will grow to the ceiling. The winter minimum for this type of philodendron is 16-18 ° C.
Also on sale you can find many interspecific hybrids of philodendron, for example Hybrid Philodendron 'Prince of Orange', 'Red Emerald', or 'Blue Mink', or 'Purple Prince', etc.
Temperature: Normal room temperature in summer. In winter, with a decrease in daylight hours, a cooler content is desirable, at 18-22 ° C, but not lower than 15 ° C. Avoid cold drafts. If there is no direct flow of warm air from batteries, then philodendrons winter well even at a normal room temperature of 22-26 ° C, provided that they are provided with additional lighting (using fluorescent lamps).
Lighting: Bright place, protected from direct sunlight at noon, very light partial shade. Variegated forms require a little more light, preferably morning or evening sun. Climbing philodendron has more delicate leaves than other species, only an east or northwest window sill is suitable for it, or placement under shade. Philodendrons are unpretentious plants, many of them grow under fully artificial lighting, and next to the northern window. But really powerful and spreading bushes form only in good lighting. My philodendron radiant grows from May to October on the southern windowsill, the only shading is a light mosquito net.
Watering: In spring and summer, moderate, the soil should be moist all the time (not too damp), which means that the soil in the upper third of the pot should dry out well for the next watering. In winter, watering is reduced, only complete drying of the soil is not allowed, the earth should dry out, in the upper half of the pot, then you need to wait another 3-4 days before watering. With excess watering, the lower leaves may turn yellow, if the soil dries out for too long, cakes, is too dense and does not allow the roots to breathe, root rot may develop. Do not forget that philodendrons are mostly epiphytes, which means that the roots must breathe, which does not happen in dense swampy soil. With a lack of moisture, the tips of the leaves dry out, with strong overdrying, the whole, as a rule, the lower leaves dry out and fall off.Sometimes, with excessive watering, droplets of water appear on the petioles and leaves.
Fertilizer: From March to October, philodendrons are fed with a complex fertilizer for decorative deciduous plants. Top dressing every two weeks. For large tree-like vines, you can add well-rotted compost once a summer to the top layer of the earth during transplanting, or without it. When feeding the philodendron with fertilizers, it is important not to overfeed, otherwise the tips of the leaves turn yellow or turn brown, the leaves themselves wither and become lifeless. If you added a significant proportion of humus to the soil, then do not feed it with other fertilizers for at least 2 months. On the contrary, quite often philodendrons suffer from a lack of nutrients in the soil, if they are not transplanted for a long time and forget to feed. At the same time, the leaves become smaller, their tips dry and turn yellow, the plant lags behind in growth.
Air humidity: Philodendrons are inhabitants of humid forests or floodplains, they like moist air. Unfortunately, dry air cannot be compensated for by over-watering. It is necessary to regularly spray the plants in spring and summer, and in winter, if it is better to put pallets with wet sphagnum moss next to the heating system, hang the batteries with a wet sheet. Small plants are given a shower several times over the summer to remove dust. In large plants, the leaves are regularly wiped with a damp sponge.
In spring, every year, young plants, and after three to four years old. The soil should be very loose and nutritious at the same time. pH = 5.5-6.5, i.e. slightly acidic reaction, Philodendron does not like alkaline soils. When composing your own soil mixture, use 1 part turf, 1 part coconut substrate, 1 part humus (compost), 0.5 part coarse sand or vermiculite. The pot should be spacious enough, drainage is required to the bottom. If a salt deposit forms on the soil over time, it must be removed and replaced with fresh soil. Use settled or boiled water for irrigation. Another recipe for potting soil, tested from my own experience: 1 part compost, 1 part leaf humus, 1 part coconut substrate (or coconut chips, crumbs), 1/2 part chopped pine bark, 1/2 part sand,to the bottom of the pot I drain the pieces of wine cork. Care after transplant: watering as usual, shading the first two days, especially if it is very hot.
Propagation of philodendron
Apical or stem cuttings, as well as a leaf cut with a heel. Usually vegetative reproduction does not present any difficulties, many philodendrons have aerial roots - you just need to plant them in the ground. But it is better to sprinkle a cut of a juicy stem with charcoal or sulfur, so as not to rot in a humid environment. To plant cuttings, a lighter soil is required; you can use a universal soil or garden soil with the addition of sand and vermiculite. Grown up rooted plants are transplanted into a more nutritious soil mixture. If you have a stalk, or a leaf with a heel, without roots, you can root it in water, or immediately plant it in a pot of soil, but place it in a bag and air it periodically. Evidence that the plant has taken root is the appearance of a new leaf.
The main problem is associated with improperly selected soil, when it is too dense, cakes and dries out for a long time. Despite the fact that philodendrons have a large leaf mass, which means a large evaporating surface, the leaves are protected from huge water loss by a dense skin, the soil should be moist, but not soggy. Even in nature, where some types of philodendrons grow in swampy areas, their roots spread over the surface of bumps and tree trunks, are blown by all winds, and are not submerged around the clock in slimy damp earth. Therefore, periodically loosen the soil in the pot, add baking powder (vermiculite, pieces of bark, fine expanded clay, etc.) when replanting, and let it dry between waterings.
The plant can be affected by scale insects, thrips, ticks. The scutes are found in the form of brown, sometimes translucent plaques, located on both sides of the leaf, mainly along the veins. Thrips, on the other hand, leave a noticeable mark on the leaves in the form of silvery streaks and spots - this is how necrotic sucked areas look. With scale insects and thrips, the control measures are as follows: thoroughly wash the leaves with a sponge and soap to remove pests and their secretions. Then water the soil with a systemic insecticide (aktara, confidor). After a week, watering with an insecticide solution, repeat.
When mites appear, which provokes too dry air and high air temperature, yellow spots of irregular shape appear on the leaves, puncture points can be seen in the leaf lumen, and on the back of the leaves white husk-dandruff - pest skins. You need to fight ticks with the help of drugs - acaricides. Maintain high humidity (at least 40%). If the size of the plant allows, you can wash the foliage once a week under a hot shower (water temperature so that the hand can endure).