Table of contents:
Amaryllis family. Homeland - South Africa, about. Socotra. About 25 species have been officially registered, some of which are classified as Scadoxus Scadoxus. Among the hemantus there are evergreen species albiflos, deformis and pauculifolius, but most are deciduous with a pronounced dormant period.
Hemantus white-flowered Haemanthus albiflos- perennial bulbous plant. The bulb is about 12 cm in diameter, rounded, sometimes flattened from the sides, 1/3 deeper into the substrate. The leaves are oppositely arranged, wide, belt-shaped with a ciliated edge, dark green in color, up to 20 cm long. This species is evergreen, usually there are four leaves on the plant at the same time, they gradually age, die off and are replaced by new ones. The peduncle is leafless, up to 20 cm long. The umbellate inflorescence has a reduced perianth, so what we call a flower is actually a cluster of white stamens with yellow anthers. The fruit is a single-seeded red berry. This species is considered the most hardy, as it comes from the province of KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, in areas where it rains at any time of the year, there is no pronounced dry period.
Hemantus humilis Haemanthus humilis - naturally grows on steep rocky slopes and rocks on a well-breathing and drained substrate.
Haemanthus humilis humilis subspecies has pink to white flowers. Filaments are longer than perianth petals. Blooms in summer, peduncle usually without pubescence. Leaves appear with flowers in mid to late summer. The leaves are wide, almost round at the ends. The fruit is a fleshy oval berry, yellow-brown about 1.5 cm long, each with 1 or 2 seeds. Each seed is juicy, translucent, pale green, oval, about 5 mm long.
Haemanthus humilis subspecies hirsutus - differs in pubescent peduncle and leaves. The hairs are white, thick. The flowers are white or pinkish. Filaments are much longer than the perianth petals. Flowering in spring and summer, leaves appear with the growth of the peduncle or a little later. The leaves themselves are very wide, round at the end. The fruit is fleshy, the seed sets easily if you have two or more clones to cross-pollinate.
Representatives of the species Haemanthus humilis have several forms that differ in size - very miniature and very large, when the leaves are wide and more like a shovel than a deer tongue in shape.
Gemantus humilis Haemanthus humilis
Gemantus montanus Haemanthus montanus
Gemantus deformis Haemanthus deformis
Gemantus montanus Haemanthus montanus- summer growing, long belt-like leaves (about 1-2 cm wide), similar to the leaves of the hippeastrum, appear later than the peduncle. At first they stick up, old leaves are bent. Inflorescences are white, without pubescence. The fruit is not fleshy with one green, opaque seed. The growing season for this species is short, in nature it grows in places that are not characteristic of any amaryllis - in meadows on the foothills of the eastern regions of South Africa, moreover, in some places flooded meadows. Therefore, Gemantus Montanus is not only the most cold-resistant species, but rather tolerant of abundant watering. This does not mean that you need to rush to water it like ordinary flowers - do not confuse the pot culture at home with the natural environment! Those. Hemantus Montanus is tolerant to abundant watering during the dormant period, but it can be poured or rotted.
Hemantus deformis Haemanthus deformisis another evergreen species. The flowers are white, the peduncle is very short, the inflorescence almost lies on the leaves, always appears between the gray-green leaves in the center. Those. at the same time, a plant can have two or four leaves, but they are in pairs on two sides of the peduncle, while in many other species, the inflorescence, as it grows, is on the side of the bundle of leaves. The leaves of the deformis immediately, as they grow, bend back or bend like a boat. The leaves are wide enough, about 10-12 cm wide and 12-15 cm long. There are several forms: completely hairless, with weak pubescence and with rather hairy leaves. Grows in the midlands and coastal regions of the Eastern Cape. Very shade-tolerant, does not tolerate not only the direct sun, but the heat itself, after lunchtime at home on the sunny side is the most critical time,best of all is the north-west or north side, you can have an east window sill. This species is very critical to watering: it equally does not tolerate overdrying and long drying out of the earth.
Temperature: during the growing season, the optimum is 18-24 ° C. For the duration of the dormant period, it is not necessary to transfer the plant to the basement, or another cool place, 14-16 ° C is enough, but not lower than 10 ° C. At home, the dormant period often falls on the summer months, in this case, the hemantus "sleeps" at the temperature it is, and only in extreme heat is it worth moving the pot to a cooler place (on a shady balcony or just making it from the windowsill to the floor) … Dying leaves of deciduous hemantus also do not need to be cut off, wait until they die themselves. Since nutrients are redirected back to the bulb when the leaves die off.
Lighting: bright diffused light. Shade from direct sunlight in the afternoon. Most Gemantus suits the east or north-west sill of a window that is not shaded from the street.
Watering: moderate during the growing season. The soil must be sure to dry out at least half the depth of the pot. During the dormant period, deciduous species are kept dry, and evergreens with moderate watering. In fact, the issue of watering is the most difficult to care for, for evergreen species. The problem is the rigid dependence of temperature, stage of growth and demand for water. Hemantus bulbs quickly rot in warm and humid conditions, but lack of moisture is also not good - the bulbs dry out, the growing point dies, the inflorescences quickly fade.
Therefore, the success in growing hemantus depends on the correct size of the pot and the correct composition of the soil, they should be such that after watering the soil is moistened immediately, instantly, completely and completely, but it dries out for no longer than 2 days in warm conditions (above 18 ° C) … The species of evergreen hemantus in the winter months are not dormant, but they may not have visible growth, they simply slow down. During this period, the temperature should drop, so watering is such that the entire soil in the pot is not completely wetted, and in part, water not under the onion, but closer to the walls of the pot. The soil should also dry out no longer than 2 days.
Deciduous Hemantus species stop watering when the leaves begin to turn yellow and only resume after new leaves or flower stalks appear.
Top dressing: during the period of active growth, once every two weeks, fertilize with fertilizer for flowering indoor plants, diluted in a concentration less than the manufacturer's recommended one by about two times. Fertilizers with an NPK ratio of 4: 1: 3 or 2: 1: 2 are better suited, not to be confused with the percentage of elements. If the bottle of fertilizer says N - 20%, P - 5%, K -15%, this fertilizer is suitable, but it must be diluted with water four times more than recommended. Never use organic fertilizers. During the dormant period, when there is no visible growth, do not feed the hemantus, and if it is planted in poor, almost inert soil, apply fertilizing not with every watering, but after once or twice in a highly diluted form.
Air humidity: resistant to dry air, you can spray or wash the leaves (protecting the bulb from getting wet) with warm water for hygiene purposes (wash off the dust). If the dormant period falls during very hot months, you can spray the onion once a week (without watering!).
Transfer: exclusively when necessary at the very beginning of the growing season, usually every 4-5 years. Take the pot straight away with a small margin, but not too deep. Any width, even a box, but 12 cm deep for a young plant, for an adult plant - look at the root: so that the roots are calmly removed in a straightened state and another 2-3 cm to the height of the drainage. The fact is that in a deep pot the soil inside remains damp for a very long time, the processes of decay are going below, but the pathogenic microflora is throughout the pot. Therefore, it will seem to you that you are not pouring the onion - after all, it is dry at the top, but at a depth, in a humid environment, putrefactive fungi and bacteria multiply. By the way, many experts note that it is better to use not clay, but plastic pots (there are more holes on the bottom), especially if the soil is well-drained, with a large proportion of vermiculite,gravel or sand. In clay pots, such a substrate dries out too quickly.
So, the need for a transplant arises when the roots grow strongly and crawl out of the drainage holes, if the pot is cracked or a salt deposit has formed on the soil surface. If the deposition of salts occurs earlier, the top layer of soil must be removed and replaced with a fresh one.
The approximate composition of the soil: 2 parts of sod, 1 part of leafy soil, 1 part of humus and 1 part of fine gravel (or zeolite granules). The pot should not be too spacious, otherwise the earth will turn sour and the bulb may rot. Be careful to disturb the roots as little as possible when transplanting. If the roots break, the breaks must be sprinkled with crushed coal.
There are other options for the soil mixture, for example, Jim Shields Jim Shields - a collector of Hemantus from Indiana (USA) says that he uses the following mixture for planting all types of Gemantas: Pro-Mix soil (this is a peat mixture with the addition of perlite and vermiculite), sand and fine granite (2-3 mm) in a ratio (by volume) 2: 1: 1. Moreover, the soil that he uses is intended for succulents, it contains a large proportion of perlite. Such soil as Jim's is very poor and dries out very quickly, which is very good for bulbous ones - there is less chance of decay. But he adds fertilizing with each watering, using fertilizer with the NPK formula 20:10:20, and mentions that nitrogen is needed in the form of nitrates. Jim Shields advises avoiding fertilizers containing nitrogen in the form of ammonia or urea, and it is also very important to avoid high levels of phosphorus.after all, most South African plants are adapted to life on soils with low phosphorus content. However, in Russia, everything is very bad with soils, on the market for horticultural products you will hardly find an ideal ready-made soil mixture. Therefore, if you want to apply the Jim Shields method, use 1 part Terra Vita All-Purpose Soil, 1 part Vermiculite, 1 part sand and 1 part granite chips. Get the same. Hydroponics fertilizer can be used as a weekly dressing.1 part sand and 1 part granite chips. Get the same. Hydroponics fertilizer can be used as a weekly dressing.1 part sand and 1 part granite chips. Get the same. Hydroponics fertilizer can be used as a weekly dressing.
Reproduction of hemantus
One month after planting the leaf in vermiculite.
Hemantus propagates by seeds, offspring and daughter bulbs. The separated onions are planted in the prepared soil mixture in separate pots with a diameter of about 12 cm so that one third of the height of the bulb remains above the soil surface. With good care, they will bloom in 2-3 years. But good care is a painstaking business, for example, even during a dormant period, the bulbs should not be allowed to dry out, they need to be watered from time to time.
A collector of amaryllis BRS tells about the reproduction of a hemantus by a piece of leaf:
Reproduction of evergreen Hemantus species - albiflos, deformis, paucifolios is possible with a piece of leaf.
The technology is simple and easy: cut off a part of about 4 cm from the sheet, sprinkle the cut with fungicide. You can add root powder to the fungicide. Stick a piece of leaf vertically into wet vermiculite. Within two weeks, new growth appears. The leaf was old, but the piece was cut off during the period when the old leaves were drying out and new ones were growing - that is, the phase of active plant growth. If a piece of leaf is cut off not at the beginning of growth, but at the end or during the rest period, then it may dry out before the onion is tied.
It is also better to sow seeds immediately in separate pots - the hemantus does not tolerate frequent transplants, picks and any procedures affecting the roots, the size of the pot is about 9-10 cm wide and no more than 12 cm high, at the bottom there are large holes! Young seedlings especially need stability in growing conditions. Until three, or preferably four years, it is better not to disturb them - to transplant, rearrange and rotate, especially if you got seeds of rare and complex species. The seeds should be planted in a mixture of universal soil (Terra Vita) vermiculite and sand in equal parts. A constant temperature of 20-21 ° C and light for 16 hours are the necessary conditions for caring for hemantus seedlings. Watering is regular, but moderate, so that the soil dries out quickly, it is better to apply the rule here: a little and more often than a lot, but less often. Add fertilizer to the irrigation water regularly,with NPK ratio of 4: 1: 3 and additionally containing trace elements. From the moment of emergence of seedlings for at least a year and a half, the seedlings grow together under the lamps - since natural lighting will clearly not be enough in the autumn-winter period. You can constantly keep them on artificial supplementary lighting (fluorescent or LED lamps). After 18-20 months, young plants can be brought up as adults - they can be sent carefully for a dormant period, at the time appropriate for the type. However, the bulbs of young plants - delenki or from seedlings - should not be overdried during the dormant period, they need a little more moisture than old bulbs.You can constantly keep them on artificial supplementary lighting (fluorescent or LED lamps). After 18-20 months, young plants can be brought up as adults - they can be sent carefully for a dormant period, at the time appropriate for the type. However, the bulbs of young plants - delenki or from seedlings - should not be overdried during the dormant period, they need a little more moisture than old bulbs.You can constantly keep them on artificial supplementary lighting (fluorescent or LED lamps). After 18-20 months, young plants can be brought up as adults - they can be sent carefully for a dormant period, at the time appropriate for the type. However, the bulbs of young plants - delenki or from seedlings - should not be overdried during the dormant period, they need a little more moisture than old bulbs.
When receiving seeds from your own plant (to obtain fruits, you need two clones of the same species, i.e. two different plants are pollinated with a brush), they must be sown directly immediately, after opening the fruit, storage is permissible for 1-2 months at a temperature of about +4 -5 ° C.