Table of contents:
Amaryllis family. Homeland - South and Central America, southern regions of North America, West Indies. There are about 60 species in nature.
Hymenokallis are perennial evergreen herbaceous bulbous. Bulbs are ovoid or spherical, often with a wide neck covering the basal leaves. Some species of Hymenokallis bloom when a well-leafy bush is formed, others bloom at a very early age. Leaves can be of various shapes: belt-shaped, obovate or oblong, sessile (without petiole) or petiolate. The ovary is inferior, spherical, ovoid, oblong or pear-shaped; there are from 2 to 10 oocytes in each nest - the most important distinguishing feature in a particular species.
The genus Hymennokallis is quite extensive; in Russia, several species are grown, described below. In the USA, Hymenocallis are more popular, and many more species are widespread in culture (for example, Hymenocallis vasconcelosii, Hymenocallis harrisiana, Hymenocallis glauca, etc.), breeding work is constantly being carried out, and descriptions of species in the literature are being updated. Some species still do not have an explicit clear description due to their almost complete disappearance, insufficient comparative base. In such cases, the only sources of information are illustrations of old herbaria and botanical descriptions of garden encyclopedias published over 100 years ago.
The cultivation of Hymennokallis in culture began with their widespread distribution by sailors in the 16th century. Returning from the tropical shores of the Antilles and from the Spanish maritime possessions (the east coast of Central and South America, partly from the North - from Florida to Venezuela), they carried bulbs and seeds. The identification of the species remains confusing to this day, but flower nurseries specializing in the cultivation and selection of bulbous and amaryllis in particular (for example, Ogden - USA or Borys - Mexico) contribute to the definition.
The traditional classification of the tribe Hymenocallis from 1962 is a grouping of genera into six groups, based on morphological characteristics.
Group 1 Speciosa: includes petioled species found in Brazil, Mexico and the Caribbean.
Group 2 Mexicana: species with sessile leaves or underdeveloped (unexpressed) petioles. The leaves are usually oblong, oblong-lanceolate or xiphoid, and are native to Mexico.
Group 3 Caribeae - species with slightly lanceolate leaves, evergreen, with a loose crown (the crown is raised above the petals), distributed in Central America, the Caribbean and Florida.
Group 4 Littoralis: species have lanceolate leaves, usually evergreen, with a crown half-grown with petals. They are common in Colombia, Ecuador and Mexico.
Group 5 Caroliniana: species that have extrinsic anthers, rather narrow belt-like leaves, a globular ovary and up to 4 eggs in the nest. The homeland of these species is the southern states of the United States.
Group 6 Henryae: species that have intrinsic anthers, belt-like leaves, an oblong ovary and from 4 or more eggs in the nest. Distributed in Florida and Cuba.
A huge request to the readers, respects the botanical systematics and not to confuse the different genera of Amaryllis: Hymenokallis and Ismene are two different genera. To make it easier and clearer: Ismene is a garden plant that has a pronounced dormant period (drops leaves for the winter) and has a pseudostem. Hymenokallis are overwhelmingly evergreens, do not have a stem - leaves are basal, form a rosette around the bulb, or are formed in two rows.
The cultural requirements of various Hymenokallis differ - some of them are xerophytes, they are found naturally in meadows and rocky terrain; the other part - mesohygrophytes - grows in subtropical dry forests or wetlands. Xerophytic Hymennocallis, for example, Hymenocallis harrisiana, have a dormant period, shedding leaves completely (or partially in indoor conditions), Mesohygrophilic Hymenocallis are evergreen.
Interesting observations under the conditions of seed germination are published in "Hymenocallis Salisb. Germination Variants and Seedling Yield" by Mexican scientists MW Borys, H. Leszczynska-Borys and JL Galvan. They germinated the seeds of the coastal Hymenocallis Hymenocallis littoralis from the mesohygrophytic group and the Hymenocallis Harrisian Hymenocallis harrisiana from the xerophyte group. The seeds were obtained by artificial pollination of 10-20 inflorescences. The collected seeds were germinated at 18-24 in two ways. The former were placed in moist matter, the latter were planted in transparent containers in a dry substrate to a depth of 1 cm. All seeds began to germinate within the first week, some germinated within 4-6 weeks.
Interestingly, xerophyte seeds germinated in a humid environment, forming multiple roots over the entire surface of the seed coat, mesohygrophyte seeds germinated in a dry environment for three days after collection, and one root was formed at the scar (the place of attachment of seeds to the seed stalk). All this can be explained by the elementary mechanism of plant adaptation: xerophyte seeds are ready to germinate at the beginning of the wet vegetative period, if they germinated as easily as mesohygrophytes, immediately after the capsules ripen in dry conditions, then the bulb would not have time to form or grow enough to survive unfavorable dry period. Therefore, the rapid germination of seeds is possible when there is sufficient moisture.
Hymenocallis caribbean Hymenocallis caribaea is an evergreen perennial bulbous plant native to Jamaica, Virgin Islands. The bulb is about 10 cm in diameter, does not have a pronounced neck. Leaves are obverse lanceolate, 30-60 cm long and 5-7.5 cm wide. Leaves at the end are conical with a pointed tip and slightly tapering towards the base. The leaves grow directly from the bulb (do not form a false stem), the rosette is wide and dense (there are quite a few leaves). Leafless peduncle, about 30-60 cm long, umbellate inflorescence of 8-10 flowers (up to 12 in nature). Bracts ovate or lanceolate, 3-6 cm long. Perianth tube 5-6.5 cm long (sometimes up to 10 cm), petals are narrow, thin, up to 9-11 cm long, drooping, white. The crown is loose, 2-3 cm long. The free parts of the stamens are 3-5 cm long. Anthers 1-1.5 cm long. Ovate-spherical ovary 1-1.5 cm. Fragrant flowers, as a rule,sessile (without petiole). Fruits are roundish 1.5-2 cm in diameter. There is a variegated form of Hymenocallis caribaea СVariegataТ. The people have the name "Caribbean lily".
Hymenocallis fine Hymenocallis speciosa- an evergreen perennial bulbous plant 35-45 cm high. It lives in dry tropical forests of the Caribbean, Cuba, Bahamas. The bulb is about 7.5-10 cm in diameter. Forms a rosette of 7-8 leaves per season. They are obverse-lanceolate or oblong, wedge-shaped at the base - with a pronounced petiole. The dimensions of the leaf plate are from 25 to 45 cm in length and 8-13.5 cm in width. Petioles are wide, from 9 to 17 cm in length. The peduncle is gray-green, double-ribbed, 30-40 cm high. There are 7-12 flowers, they are petiolar, the pedicel is about 1 cm long. Flower tube 7-9 cm long, petals 9.5-11.5 cm long, sometimes up to 15 cm. Crown funnel-shaped, 2.5-3.5 cm (up to 5 cm). Ovary with two seeds in each nest. The flowers are very fragrant, pure white, the diameter of a flower can reach 20-30 cm. It is popularly called "Nile lily".
The variety of leaves and bushes can be viewed here
Hymenokallis broadleaf Hymenocallis latifolia is a vigorous plant with numerous evergreen leaves. Homeland - the southeastern United States, Cuba, Jamaica, the Cayman Islands, Haiti, Puerto Rico and Martinique, mostly common in coastal dunes, on sandy ridges along mangrove swamps. Leaves are oblong-obverse-lanceolate or oblong-elongated, smoothly tapering towards the base with a notch along the central vein. The length of the leaf is 40-75 cm, 4-7.5 cm at the widest point and 2.5-3 cm in the lower narrower part. Peduncle 40-60 cm tall (sometimes even higher). The flowers are sessile - there are no pedicels. But the flower tube is 8-12 cm long, the petals are 9 to 14.5 cm long. The crown is narrowly funnel-shaped, 2.5-3.5 cm long, and 2.5 cm in diameter. The edge of the crown is wavy, without pronounced teeth. The free parts of the filaments are 4.5-6 cm long. Anthers with orange pollen, up to 1.5-2 cm long.The ovary is ovate, 0.9–1.6 by 5–10 mm in size, with two, very rarely three oocytes. The fruits are oval, about 3 cm long.
Differences between some types of Hymenokallis:
|The leaf is elliptical, the petiole and the transition from the leaf blade to the petiole are clearly expressed.||Leaf shape is oblong, linear or lanceolate, gradually tapering towards the base.|
|Hymenocallis fine Hymenocallis speciosa||flower tubes 4-6.5 cm long, petals 8-12 cm long||flower tubes 8-15 cm long, petals 9-14.5 cm long|
|Hynrenocallis caribaea||leaves 4-8.5 cm wide||leaves 2-2.5 cm wide|
|Hynrenocallis latifolia||Hymenocallis praticola|
Hymenokallis and Pankratium, what is the difference: we understand the forum.
Hymenokallis coastal Hymenocallis littoralis- an evergreen herb that lives in nature near swamps and mangroves in tropical America (Peru, Brazil, Mexico). Globular bulbs about 7.5-9.5 cm in diameter with a pronounced neck. Leaves are sessile, arranged two-row, belt-shaped, pointed at the end, up to 60-75 cm long (in nature up to 1 m), 5-6 cm wide. Peduncle up to 60 cm high, two bracts, about 6 cm. Perianth tube up to 12 cm length. The flowers are fragrant, white with long narrow petals (0.5 x 12 cm). The petals are long, but not below the flower tube. The crown is partially accrete (practically lies on the petals), its edge between the stamens is wavy, there are no pronounced sharp teeth. Free part of filaments about 3 cm. Ovary with 4-5 eggs in each nest. The pistil column is usually longer than the stamens.As a houseplant, you can find the variegated Hymenocallis littoralis ssp. variegata - with creamy stripes along the leaf plate.
Hymenocallis tubular-flowered Hymenocallis tubiflora- an evergreen perennial bulbous plant 35-45 cm high. In nature, it is found in the northern part of South America (Northern Brazil, Venezuela, Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad), grows in meadows and rocky slopes. The bulb is ovoid, narrow at the neck and about 7.5-9.5 cm in diameter, thin light brown scales. Leaves are oblong, smoothly tapering towards the top, and also smoothly tapering towards the base, 20-30 cm long and 10-12 cm wide, pronounced groove along the central vein. The petiole itself is 15 to 30 cm long. The peduncle is small, about 30-35 cm tall. The flowers are short-petiolate, numerous, with a very long thin tube of 15-20 cm - a distinctive feature of the species (hence the name - tubiflora). The petals are strongly bent and usually twisted spirally (2-3 turns), 10-15 cm long. The crown is narrow with a serrated edge,free - 2–3 cm high above the petals. The pistil column is usually longer than the stamens. Prefers light, full sun, well-drained soil, not too spacious pots.
Did you know that in ancient times hymenocallis were used as medicinal plants, despite the fact that all representatives of this genus are poisonous. The juice of the bulbs has astringent, diuretic, emetic and expectorant properties. It was also used for external treatment of malaria, as well as for the treatment of sprains and edema. The extract from the leaves has been used to stimulate hair growth.
Hymenokallis eucharis-like Hymenocallis eucharidifolia- an evergreen perennial bulbous plant, the species was discovered in 1884, but over the next century it was considered to have disappeared from its natural habitat - the tropical forests of Mexico (states of Oaxaca and Guerrero). The famous American naturalist, landscape designer and traveler, author of many books on plant growing, Scott Ogden, managed to acquire several bulbs (where or from whom he acquired them, history is silent). The bulbs took root well in his Texas. It happened in the 90s of the last century, and in such a short period from a pair of Ogden bulbs, the widespread distribution of this type of Hymenokallis throughout the territory not only of Russia, but also of the United States did not work. Therefore, if it seems to you that a certain Hymenokallis looks like eucharis-like, this is most likely just an external resemblance. Hymenocallis eucharidifolia is still quite rare.
Some species differences: the bulb is ovoid, with thin covering scales of brown color. The leaves are oblong, up to 30 cm long, at the widest point up to 9 cm, with pronounced venation and deepening along the central vein, like in eucharis. But unlike eicharis, the leaves are practically sessile, petiolate and wide at the base. Peduncle double-ribbed, about 30 cm long. The inflorescence has 4-5 flowers, the perianths are narrow, 10 cm long, the petals are also narrow, thin, about 9 cm long. The crown is pure white, funnel-shaped, about 3 cm long and 2.5 cm in diameter. The free parts of the filaments are 2.6-3 cm long. The flowers have no pronounced aroma!
Temperature: During the growing season, the optimum is 18-24 ° C. In winter, the temperature is normal, room temperature, but preferably not higher than 22 ° C. Most indoor hymenocallis do not have a rest period. But some species can themselves go to a dormant period - in the fall, with a cold snap and a decrease in daylight hours, the leaves turn yellow. Then you need to rearrange the pots to a cool place at 14-15 ° C and stop watering.
Lighting: Bright, diffused light with some direct sun in the morning or evening. Some species grow well in partial shade. If the bush is lush, with a good crown, there is enough light. If there is little light, the leaves stretch out, turn pale, the bush is loose, flowering is delayed. In this case, the flower pot must be moved to a lighter window.
Watering: Abundant from spring to late summer, but the soil should dry out in the upper third of the pot. Many species are real waterbirds, they grow in nature almost in swamps, but when growing pots, you need to make sure that there are large drain holes and good drainage at the bottom of the pot. Waterlogging is detrimental to some types of hymenocallis. Since autumn, watering does not stop, because hymenokallis are evergreens. But in winter, plants should not grow vigorously, they slow down their growth so that the onion gets stronger. Therefore, watering should be less frequent than in summer.
Fertilizer: Once every two to three weeks with liquid mineral fertilizer for flowering indoor plants, diluted at the concentration recommended by the manufacturer. Top dressing begins in March, the first two or three times can be fed with diluted organic matter - growing young leaves need nitrogen fertilization. But then it is worth switching to a complex mineral fertilizer - plants need phosphorus and potassium for flowering. Finish feeding by September.
Air humidity: If the plant is in a room with dry air, then you can periodically spray the leaves with boiled water. But remember that in winter in a room with central heating, hymenokallis suffers not from dry air, but from heat. Therefore, it is advisable to protect the plant from directed hot air - cover the batteries with wet sheets or fence off the window sill with a plexiglass screen. If moving the pot inside the room, provide fluorescent lighting.
Transplant: Hymenokallis is transplanted as needed, in the spring, every two to three years. The pot is taken in proportion to the root system - a small space around the roots. Hymenocallis do not like too spacious pots - flowering is delayed, the plant grows green mass. How deeply to bury the bulb of hymennocalis depends largely on the species - in vigorous species (tubular-flowered, coastal, old specimens of the Caribbean), the bulb is buried completely (to the root collar), since the leaf mass is too heavy and careless movement of a medium-sized pot will entail a fall and injury. In medium-sized species, for example, Hymenokallis the beautiful, the bulb is buried 2/3 of the height. Soil of 2 parts of clay-sod, 1 part of leafy land, 1 part of humus and 1 part of sand. Soil acidity for Hymenokallis pH from 6 to 7.8.
Reproduction: Daughter bulbs during transplantation in the spring. Some species breed well, others reluctantly. Often, you can stimulate budding by planting the bulb deeper.
Gardeners' chronicle, London, England, 1874, Contributions from the United States -National Herbarium, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- …
Familiarum naturalium Regni veg. Abstracts monographicae, Vimariae, Landes-Industrie-Comptoir, 1846-47
Hymenocallis Salisb. Germination Variants and Seedling Yield, MW Borys, H. Leszczynska-Borys and JL Galván Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla Agronomía-Recursos Naturales, 2005