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Pepper family. Homeland South America, Mexico. This vast genus in nature numbers about 1000 species. Among the peperomias grown as indoor plants, there are small small-leaved species, and large tub plants, ampelous or bushy forms.
Types of peperomia
All types of peperomias are capable of killing pathogenic bacteria in the air (streptococci, staphylococci, sarcins), so it is especially useful to keep these plants in the nursery if the child often suffers from colds.
- Peperomia magnoliaefolia - has strongly branching erect stems with a reddish tint and alternate leaves on short petioles about 12-15 cm long, round or obovate. Leaves are fleshy leathery shiny pure green or with various forms of white or yellow spots.
- Peperomia blunt-leaved Peperomia obtusifolia is very similar to the previous species, they are often confused, the main difference is in the structure of the inflorescence and fruit. Leaves are about 10-12 cm long, dark green or variegated. In this type of peperomia, the leaves are more rounded. Compare the ratio of leaf length to width to see the difference between species.
Peperomia blunt-leaved Peperomia obtusifolia
Peperomia magnolia-leaved Peperomia magnoliifolia
Peperomia gray Peperomia incana
- Peperomia silvery Peperomia argyreia is a small bushy plant with a shortened stem, on which several leaves on long petioles form a twisted rosette, as it were. Leaves are ovoid, about 7-9 cm long, pointed at the apex. Painted leaf - dark green stripes along the central veins, and silvery stripes between them.
- Peperomia gray-silvery Peperomia griseoargentea is very similar to the previous species, but there are no such pronounced silvery stripes, but, as it were, the entire leaf is silvery-green with an uneven, wavy surface. There is a variety with black and green stripes along the veins.
- Peperomia cusiaefolia Peperomia clusiaefolia is a large bushy plant with erect fleshy stems, large leaves of an obovate shape, elongated at the base, up to 15 cm long, thick and fleshy, sit on short petioles. The leaves are dark green with a reddish tint and a red-brown stripe along the edge.
- Peperomia pereskiaefolia is a large plant with first erect, then lodging stems. The leaves are collected in rosettes of 3-5 elliptical pieces, pointed at the end. The leaves are dark green, leathery and tough on the surface, three arcuate veins are clearly visible.
Peperomia wrinkled Peperomia caperata
Peperomia wrinkled Peperomia caperata 'Schumi Red'
Left - Peperomia Sanders, in the center Peperomia gray-silver, right - Peperomia wrinkled
- Peperomia climbing Peperomia scandens is a small ampelous plant with long pinkish-green stems and oval-shaped leaves, pointed at the end, about 5 cm long.
- Peperomia glabella Peperomia glabella is an ampelous plant with drooping or creeping stems and wide oval leaves of bright green color.
Peperomia clusiifolia 'Jely'
Peperomia clusiifolia Peperomia clusiifolia 'Jely'
Peperomia round-leaved Peperomia rotundifolia
- Round-leaved peperomia Peperomia rotundifolia is an ampelous plant with small, up to 1 cm long, round leaves, often sitting on short petioles on a green creeping stem.
- Peperomia creeping Peperomia prostrata is similar to the previous species. Ampel plant with small, up to 1 cm long, rounded leaves, but they are not as frequent as on round-leaved peperomia. The leaves are variegated - with silvery or bronze spots, the stem is reddish.
Peperomia gray-silver Peperomia griseoargentea 'Pink Marble'
Peperomia round Peperomia orba
Peperomia head Peperomia glabella
Temperature: Peperomia grows well in warm rooms at 20-26 ° C. In winter, she would like a cooler environment with reduced illumination and daylight hours, optimally 17-18 ° C, not lower than 14 ° C.
Lighting: Bright diffused light, obligatory shading from direct sunlight in spring and summer from 12 to 16 o'clock, it is not necessary to shade on the east or north-west windowsill. Peperomia species with dark green leaves grow in light partial shade, variegated species are more photophilous. Good lighting is required in winter, otherwise the leaves begin to shrink and lose color, so by winter, rearrange the peperomia closer to the light. In central Russia, in winter, peperomia can even stand on the southern window.
Watering: In summer in hot weather, after the soil in the pot is thoroughly dry, the next day. If not too hot (22-24 ° C) 2-3 days after the soil has dried. Peperomias are allowed to dry until the earthen coma is completely dry. In winter, when the content is cool (below 20 ° C), watering is rare, after the soil dries up, only after a few days. The soil of peperomia should not be constantly wet - it easily rots or undergoes the formation of spots, spots appear on the leaves that look like warts.
Note: Peperomias with thinner leaves, like Peperomia gray-silver, Sanders, etc. species, you need to water a little more often than stiff-leaved (clusiform, blunt-leaved). Those. they also need to thoroughly dry the soil before the next watering, but not to the point of weightlessness of the pot.
Fertilizer: Only in the period of active growth from March to July after two weeks, complex fertilizer for indoor plants. If there is a lack of nutrients in the soil, then young leaves become smaller. The dose of fertilizer is taken twice less than in the instructions!
Air humidity: Optimal about 40-50%. Periodically sprayed with peperomia with undisturbed leaves to wash off the dust and refresh the plant. Large-leaved peperomias with a glossy leaf surface can be wiped off with a damp sponge. Many peperomias with corrugated leaves, such as Peperomia caperata wrinkled, do not tolerate water splashing on the leaves.
Transplant: Small-leaved peperomias are usually transplanted annually, large-leaved peperomias can be transplanted less often - every two years in spring, or if necessary, when the plant slows down, the soil is compacted into a monolithic mass. Since the roots of peperomia, even in large specimens, are small, a small pot is needed.
An excellent version of the soil mixture, which is quite nutritious and in which it is difficult to fill the plant: leafy soil (1 part), humus (1 part), coconut substrate (1 part) and fine gravel (1 part). You can use a commercially available universal soil mixture, soil mixtures "for palms" or "for ficuses" are also suitable - but to such peat soils you need to add disintegrants - a part of vermiculite (gravel, zeolite granules). The acidity of the soil for peperomia is 5.8-6.
Peperomia is propagated by leaf and stem cuttings, seeds, dividing the bush. The most common propagation is by stem cuttings, and, in good lighting, in warmth, cuttings easily root in water at any time of the year.
Peperomia cuttings root well both in wet sand and in water, so you can put a peperomia cuttings or leaf in a small glass or cup in boiled water. The sheet may not be dried, but immediately put into water so that the lower part of the sheet is about 3 mm in water. If there is more water, there is a possibility that the leaf petiole will rot.
If you got only one peperomia leaf, then it can be rooted. To do this, pour vermiculite into the container, moisten it, put a sheet of peperomia on the surface, cover it with glass (you can not completely) and put it in a bright, but not sunny place. When the leaf takes root, you need to wait for a new sprout - a young shoot, and only then transplant it into a pot, into the prepared soil. Take out with a tablespoon, along with vermiculite. Sprinkle earth on top, but do not tamp.