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The Mirsinov family. Homeland Iran and the Eastern Mediterranean. There are about 20 species in nature.
Previously, cyclamen belonged to the primrose family, which, in turn, belonged to the order of primroses Primulales. Now this order of primroses does not exist, the revised taxonomic classification is as follows: Cyclamen belongs to the Mirsinov family (based on genetic analysis "Generic realignment in primuloid families of the Ericales sl: a phylogenetic analysis based on DNA sequences from three chloroplast genes and morphology" Mari Källersjö, Gullevi Bergqvist and Arne A. Anderberg). In turn, the myrsin family belongs to the order of Heather Ericales.
Of the existing species on sale, you can find Persian cyclamen, less often European, Kos, Neapolitan cyclamen and some others.
Cyclamen is a perennial tuberous plant. The tuber is rounded flattened, about 10 cm in diameter. During the growth period, a lush rosette of leaves and peduncles up to 20 cm long with single flowers are formed on the tuber. The height of the bush is on average about 30 cm. But among the hybrids of Persian cyclamen there are also low-growing varieties, no higher than 15 cm in height. The leaves of the cyclamen are round-heart-shaped, on long reddish petioles, leaf sizes from 10 to 15 cm in diameter, the leaf surface is green or dark green with a silvery-marble pattern.
Breeders continue to work on the development of more and more bright and colorful varieties of cyclamen, including changing the color of the leaves. There are varieties whose leaves are almost completely silvery-gray with a dark green center ('Picasso'). Cyclamen flowers are bisexual, radial, five-petaled. The petals are usually large 5-6 cm, folded so that they are very similar to a butterfly, some varieties have lacy edges of the petals ('Friller', 'Red Partisan', 'Kyle', 'Leelu', 'Masha'), there are simple flowers ('Kiss', 'Violet Cattleya', 'Fleur en Vogue') and terry; one-color ('Halios Frange', 'Gabi') and two-color ('Carousel' Fantasia, Victoria), completely different from anyone else's 'Bellissima' variety - with lace wavy petals, but not in the shape of a butterfly,but in the form of bells.
Double flowers cyclamen
Cyclamen Persian variety 'Kiss'
Cyclamen Persian variety 'Picasso'
Difference of species cyclamen from Persian
One of the prerequisites for the well-being of cyclamen is a cool temperature - about 12-15 ° С, but not lower than 10 ° С and not higher than 20 ° С.
The place for the cyclamen should be very bright, preferably bright diffused light. Avoid bright direct sun, i.e. shade the plant. But a certain amount of sunlight in the morning or in the evening the plant accepts gratefully.
During the growing season, regular watering is necessary, preferably by immersion; when watering from above, it is necessary to ensure that water does not fall on the tuber and leaves, and water is poured to the edge of the pot.
Since the cyclamen loves humid air, the pot is placed on a tray with pebbles or wet peat. It is impossible to spray cyclamen, you can only humidify the air around the plant from a very fine spray bottle.
How to care for cyclamen after flowering
After the cyclamen fades, the flowers are cut to the very tuber, watering is reduced and feeding is stopped. The yellowed leaves are not cut off, but twisted together with the petioles. By spring, all the remaining leaves will dry out completely - the plant goes into a state of dormancy. Watering is stopped altogether. The pot is laid on its side and placed in a cool place and not watered until mid-summer.
From mid-summer, the pot is placed in a shaded place in the fresh air, the earth is periodically moistened so that it is moderately moist. The appearance of the first leaves is a sign that it is time to transplant the plant. For other species, it is enough just to unscrew the dried leaves and stop feeding.
Cyclamen for New Year
How to transplant cyclamen
When replanting, the old soil is completely replaced. The soil for the Persian cyclamen should consist of 1 part of leaf, 1 part of humus, 1 part of turf and 1 part of sand. When transplanting, the root system is checked, all diseased or decayed roots must be removed. The cyclamen pot should not be very large, the best size is 12-14 cm in diameter. In a pot that is too small, cyclamen will bloom prematurely and flowering will be weak.
For the rest of the species, it is advisable to add ash or dolomite to the soil for a neutral reaction, while the soil for the Neapolitan and European cyclamens should be nutritious, poor for the Kos. When transplanting, the tubers of Persian cyclamens are not buried, leaving about a third of the tuber on top, the rest can be buried, but the Neapolitan one must be buried.
After transplanting, the cyclamen is placed in a bright place, shaded from direct sunlight, watering for the first two weeks after transplanting should be moderate until the plant gets stronger and new leaves sprout.
Reproduction of cyclamen
Cyclamen is propagated by dividing the tuber and seeds. Seeds of Persian, European, Neapolitan cyclamens are sown in late summer (optimal periods: August - September), in loose soil (we recommend in a mixture of universal soil and coconut substrate in equal proportions or a mixture of peat, sand and vermiculite). Seeds are covered to a depth of 5 mm. The soil is evenly moistened, periodically sprayed, not allowing it to dry out. One of the methods of germination is that the seeds are not buried in the soil, but laid out on the surface of the earth, covered with a thin layer of sphagnum moss on top, which is moistened from a spray bottle. Moss is very hygroscopic and the seeds do not dry out. But if a bowl with crops is covered with a bag and rarely ventilated, they can become moldy and die!
They contain crops at a temperature of 15-18 ° C, seedlings appear in different ways - from 3 weeks to 2 months after sowing. The most important thing is to maintain the temperature, if it gets too hot, the seedlings will die. Transplanting into pots is carried out in the phase of 2 leaves. Most varieties of Persian cyclamen bloom in 15-18 months, miniature forms in 6-8 months.
The seeds of the Kosky cyclamen are sown in winter, in January-February. European cyclamen can be propagated by dividing the tuber in February.
It is easier to grow cyclamen from seeds if you have an indoor greenhouse (you can buy it at any gardening center or flower shop). By the way, cyclamens grown from seeds are more adapted to indoor conditions than specimens grown in Dutch greenhouses.