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Family of acanthus. More than 400 species are distributed in the genus. Homeland - tropical and temperate latitudes of North and South America. The genus is named after the 18th century Scottish gardener James Justis. The once independent clans Beloperone and Jacobinia now belong to the genus Justicia Justicia. Unfortunately, with the renaming of numerous Jacobinas in Justice, not only the name of the genus changed, but also the species. For example, Justicia spicigera was formerly Jacobinia of Gizbrecht Jacobinia ghiesbrechtiana. Leaving the old name and still using the names Beloperone or Jacobinia is botanically incorrect, it's time to get used to the new names.
Justicia brandegeeana (formerly Beloperone Guttata) is from Mexico. A semi-shrub, reaching a height of 1 m. The leaves are elliptical, pointed at the end and smoothly tapering towards the petiole. The leaves, like the stems, are finely pubescent, about 10 cm long, 4 cm wide. The inflorescence is an ear. The flowers have bright bracts, which become brighter with the growth of the inflorescence - from pale pink to rich salmon. The flowers themselves are two-lipped, five-petalled, with a thin long tube, pure white, with maroon specks in the throat. There are several varieties that differ in the color of the bracts - in some they are bright yellow, in others they are pink or brick-colored. Flowering is long
- Justicia carnea (formerly bright red Jacobinia carnea or Jacobinia Fields Jacobinia pohliana are all one and the same plant) is from Brazil. A semi-shrub, up to 1.2-1.5 cm high. The leaves are ovoid, dark green, sometimes with a bronze tint, about 15-20 cm long, 8-12 cm wide, with a noticeable venation, which makes the leaves look wrinkled. This type of justice, unlike the previous one, is not bright bracts (they are green), but the flowers themselves are two-lipped, narrow long accrete petals of bright pink color. A pair of long stamens with dark brown anthers are clearly visible.
- Shadow Justice Justicia umbrosa - also from Brazil, practically does not differ from the previous species, only slightly larger - the bushes reach 1.8-2.5 m in height, the flowers are bright yellow. Bred with white flowers.
Justicia Rizzinii Justicia rizzinii (formerly Jacobinia small-flowered Jacobinia pauciflora) is from Brazil. A real dwarf, among other justicia, is a well-branched shrub, about 30-50 cm in height. Leaves are dark green, opposite, oblong in shape, narrowed at the end and at the base, smoothly turning into a short petiole. The leaves are only about 2-4 cm long and 1-2 cm wide. The flowers are tubular, drooping, about 2 cm long, bright yellow, red at the base, 3-5 pieces in axillary racemose inflorescences. Blooms profusely in late winter - spring
It is noteworthy that the indigenous population of Mexico since ancient times used the growing species of Justice in their economy - from the leaves of Justicia spicigera, a dye (Muitle), indigo color (gray-blue), is obtained with which fabric and wool are dyed. If the leaves are placed in hot water, it turns black and then dark blue.
Also of interest is the species Justicia literal Justicia betonica - originally from South, East Africa and India, a shrub reaching a height of 2 m (in indoor conditions up to 1 m). Leaves are opposite, elongate-oval, 6-15 cm long and 2.5-4 cm wide, pointed at the end and gradually tapering into a petiole, slightly wavy. This Justicia is notable for the color of the bracts - they are creamy green or creamy gray with green veins, the flowers themselves are light purple. Blooms profusely, each shoot has several inflorescences (about 12 cm long, erect), bush well
Care of the Justice
Temperature: Justices prefer moderate temperatures - in summer the optimal temperature is between 20-25 ° С. In winter, the temperature should be somewhat cooler - within 16-18 ° С, at least 15 ° С. Justices do not tolerate being kept in warm, heated rooms in winter, especially with a lack of light. The plant blooms very profusely and for a long time, and it needs a rest of 3-4 months, during which the leaves do not fall, but the growth completely stops.
Lighting: bright, diffused light with little direct sunlight in the morning or evening. An east or northwest window that is not shaded from the street is best suited. On the south and west windows, justice will have to be shaded, but here it is dangerous not only the direct sun, which can leave burns on the leaves, but also the heat, from which the inflorescences and leaves dry and fly around.
Watering: abundant during the period of growth and flowering, by the next watering the soil should have time to dry out in the upper third of the pot, and in the depths it should be slightly damp all the time. In winter, watering is limited, its frequency depends on the temperature, the main thing is that the earth has time to dry out in the upper half of the pot.
Air humidity: most acanthus, including justice, love humid air. The optimum humidity is 50-60%. In summer, spraying twice a day in dry weather is sufficient. If you keep justice in winter at a temperature not higher than 20 ° C, you can spray once or twice a day, and this will be enough. But at higher temperatures, spraying will make things easier for a short time. If the plant is small and stands on the window, you can fence off the window sill from the battery with a high polycarbonate sheet or greenhouse film, and put the plant itself on a wide pallet with damp moss.
Top dressing: during the growth period - from April to August, justice is fed every two weeks with fertilizer for flowering plants ("fertika-lux", "bona-forte" or "agriculture" for flowering plants, "cheerful florist", "uniflor-bud" other).
Transfer: annually in the spring. The soil should be nutritious but loose. The approximate composition of the mixture: 2 parts of sod land, 1 part of leaf (peat), 1 part of humus (compost) and 1 part of sand. Good drainage is a must. Vermiculite and pine bark can be added as loosening agents (it slightly acidifies the soil). pH = 5.1-6.5 Justice does not like alkaline soils, grows on slightly acidic and neutral.
Reproduction: not lignified stem cuttings that take root easily, practically throughout the year. Cut cuttings should be put in water, and the jar should be placed in a wide transparent bag, the edges of which should not be tied, but simply straightened. This will increase the humidity around the cutting. After the roots have grown about 5 cm, they can be planted in small pots, two or three pieces together. As the cuttings grow, they must be transferred (without disturbing the root ball) into a large pot.
Crown formation: after the cuttings take root and form 3-4 pairs of new leaves, the ends of the shoots are pinched. The regrown branches are pinched again when they grow about 10 cm.In the first year after rooting, the cutting should not be allowed to bloom, this depletes the plant, it is better to try to form the crown - to achieve its greater branching, in which case, in the future, flowering will be more abundant. In addition, most Justicia have large leaves, such burdocks will not fit on any windowsill, and regular pinching allows you to restrain growth. Reducing the volume of leaf mass allows the use of special preparations, retardants, for example, "Athlete".
Justice equally badly tolerate both dry land and overflow. The reaction is always the same - yellowing and flying around the leaves. When dry, first of all, the lower leaves fly around, from overmoistening - the tops of the shoots wither and droop, the rest of the leaves do not dry, but turn black. Therefore, if you recently had a plant, check the need for watering, not counting the days of the week, and not by the weight of the pot, but by touch, digging the ground deeper.
Still, the main problem of justice is proper wintering, so that there is enough light and the temperature is not higher than 18 ° C. If the frames on the windows are wooden, it is not difficult to maintain such a temperature, it is more difficult with plastic windows and with large plants that do not want to fit on a small windowsill. In this case, the plant will either have to be given to a place where wintering can be cool and light, or taken to the landing if it is light there and the temperature in winter is not higher or lower than 15-18 ° C.
With proper wintering, the problem with dry air disappears by itself, but in a warm or hot room, dry air leads to flying around the leaves (mainly in the lower part of the stems), and contributes to the defeat of spider mites.