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Orchid family. Homeland India, South and Southeast Asia, Japan, islands of the Malay Archipelago.
In nature, more than 60 species are known that grow in rainforests.
There are three subgenuses of cymbidium: Cinerorchis Cyperorchis - with large-flowered erect inflorescences, Cymbidium Cymbidium - with small-flowered drooping inflorescences and Jensoa Jensoa - with small-flowered upright inflorescences.
On sale you will find hybrid cymbidiums, their flowering occurs at different times, at different times of the year, lasts up to 3 months or more, subject to the growing conditions. Miniature cymbidium hybrids are especially popular all over the world. They come primarily from Japan and China.
Cymbidiums have green, long, linear leaves. Gradual dying off of old leaves and replacement by young ones is characteristic. Under favorable conditions, the leaves on the cymbidiums persist up to 3 years, then dry out and die off. After them, pseudobulbs remain, which are still capable of giving new growth. As they age, they shrink, lose their green color and dry out. The flowers of all cymbidiums are fragrant, the smell is quite strong and pleasant. Adult specimens grow quite large, so they require a garter, especially long peduncles, bending under the weight of numerous flowers.
Characteristics of some types of cymbidium
- Cymbidium lanceolate Cymbidium lancifolium is a subgenus of Jensoa Jensoa. Flowers up to 5 cm in diameter. Petals and sepals are light green, with a central purple vein. The lip is white, with a greenish tint, with red dots and spots on the middle lobe and with red-chestnut stripes on the lateral lobes. Bloom April - October.
- Cymbidium Day Cymbidium dayanum is a subgenus of Cymbidium Cymbidium. The inflorescence is multi-flowered. The diameter of the flowers is up to 5 cm. The petals and sepals are pale cream with a purple central vein. The lip is white, with the anterior lobe strongly curved backward. Callus lips are white or creamy. Flowering August - December.
- Cymbidium Tracy Cymbidium tracyanwn is a subgenus of Cinerorchis Cyperorchis. The inflorescence is multi-flowered. The diameter of the flowers is up to 15 cm. The flowers are yellowish-green with reddish spots along the veins. The lip is creamy, with a wavy edge and red spots and stripes along the anterior lobe. Flowering September - January.
- Cymbidium is remarkable Cymbidium insigne - subgenus Cinerorchis Cyperorchis. The inflorescence is multi-flowered. The diameter of the flowers is up to 7-8 cm. The petals and sepals are white or pale pink, with red spots at the base and near the central vein. Lateral lobes of the lip with purple spots, the anterior lobe with a pointed tip and wavy edge, strongly curved back and covered with purple spots. Blossoming February - May.
- Cymbidium Low Cymbidium lowianmn is a subgenus of Cinerorchis Cyperorchis. The inflorescence is multi-flowered. The diameter of the flowers is up to 10 cm. The petals and sepals are yellowish-green, the three-lobed lip is white or pale yellow with a V-shaped spot on the anterior lobe. Blossoming February - July.
Cymbidiums are quite difficult to grow primarily because they need a cold wintering. In nature, many species grow at moderate temperatures, up to 24-25 ° C, with temperatures dropping at night to about 12-14 ° C. This is a prerequisite for successful flowering and growth. Reducing temperatures at night is easy to achieve by keeping orchids on your balcony or garden. Then, of course, they need to be brought indoors, but in a cool place, more precisely, as cool as possible, where it is about 10 ° C. Increase the temperature, i.e. it is possible to rearrange the cymbidiums to a warmer place only when the buds begin to bloom. If transferred to heat prematurely, the buds may die.
Cymbidiums are very light-requiring, but the diffused light should be in intensity, which happens around 11 o'clock in the morning on the southeast window. The midday and afternoon sun produce heat that cymbidiums do not tolerate well from home conditions without a good supply of fresh air. In winter, the lighting should be maximum - the southern window, since the daylight hours are short, and supplement with fluorescent lamps!
Abundant during spring and summer growth, the soil should be slightly damp. With an excess of moisture, root decay can occur, black spots appear on the leaves at the base. With severe dryness, especially in warmth, pseudobulbs wrinkle, buds and flowers fall off prematurely. Reduce watering to prepare for flowering begins with a reduction in daylight hours, and nights are colder, around September. The cooler the temperature, the longer the substrate dries, and the more careful watering is. It is better to wait for the soil to dry completely in the pot. It is necessary to water with water at a temperature slightly higher than the air temperature.
During the growth period from March to August, they are fed with a special fertilizer for orchids. The American Orchid Society argue that the best fertilizer for cymbidiums is balanced in terms of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium NPK in equal parts - for example, when NPK 12-12-12, well, or NPK 8-8-8, the numbers as such do not matter - it is important that the proportions are the same. At the same time, the dose of fertilizer is taken twice less than the recommended one, and fertilizing fertilizing on a moistened substrate is taken weekly. Foliar top dressing can be carried out on the sheet.
About 50-60% is enough, but in room conditions the air humidity is much lower. Therefore, either a reservoir with water is placed next to it (fountain, pallet with pebbles), or high humidity is achieved by spraying - in the morning and in the evening. If the air humidity is insufficient, then the ends of the leaves will dry out, and the flowers will crumble prematurely. At the same time, if the orchid is in a cool room, you do not need to spray it!
Cymbidiums do not like frequent transplants when their roots are disturbed, so transplanting is only necessary when the substrate elements have begun to turn into dust, if the bark crumbles, it spills out through the drainage holes. Soil for cymbidiums: 3 parts of pine bark, 1 part of leafy soil, 1 part of pieces of styrofoam (or wine cork). Do not add any manure, very popular recipes with horse manure or cow humus are unfounded. Cymbidium grows quite well on an inert substrate, you don't even need to add any leaf or peat soil. So you reduce the likelihood of decay, a fertile environment for the development of microflora, including pathogenic ones. But fertilizing with complex mineral fertilizers will certainly be necessary. The roots of the cymbidium, like other orchids, must breathe, and not slowly decompose in the peat substrate.
By division when transplanting. When separating, each part must have at least 3 developed pseudobulbs. Watering after transplanting and separating is careful. Places of breakage and cut should be sprinkled with charcoal.
Interesting advice from the forum member a34: If you have separate bulbs and all without roots (the roots have rotted), then I would advise you to shorten all the leaves to 15-20 cm, tie them into a bunch and hang them in a 5 liter bottle with the bulbs up, pour water on the bottom of the bottle. For at least a month, it should hang like this until a bud wakes up on each bulb and begins to grow, then sphagnum can come in handy, and you can plant it down with the bulb.
Cymbidium - let's discuss ?!