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The Tolstyankov family. Homeland Mediterranean, Arabian Peninsula, North Africa (Ethiopia, etc.).
This genus of succulent plants in nature has about 40 species. They are all plants with rosettes of rounded leaves. Some of them are small, squat, others reach about a meter in height on thick, woody stems. The color of aeoniums is very diverse, from yellow to dark purple - almost black. Many species are so similar that only a specialist can distinguish them. Most cultivated species have not only several variations or forms, but also varieties.
Most of the aeoniums in nature have a rosette shape at a young age, but gradually the stem lengthens, branches and the plant turns into a spreading bush, in which the leaves remain only on the tops of the shoots, most of the stems are naked with lignified bark. Some species, such as Lindley's Eonium, can be said to look like a small tree from infancy.
Aeonium arboreum Aeonium arboreum is the most common species. It is a little branching shrub up to 90 cm tall (in natural conditions). Stems are erect, brownish. Fleshy leaves up to 6-7 cm long are collected in dense rosettes that reach 20 cm in diameter. Leaves are glabrous, bordered with delicate hairs along the edges. Leaves can be of different shapes, for example, spatulate or rounded, obtuse, or sharply pointed at the end. The leaves are green, while the garden forms are green with a purple edge or deep purple. It blooms with bright yellow flowers, collected in umbellate inflorescences. A widespread variety of aeonium tree-like - Schwarzkopf - with maroon, almost black leaves.
Aeonium longline Aeonium tabuliforme - has a short squat trunk and a dense rosette of leaves, as if spread out on the surface of the earth. This type of aeonium can reach 40-50 cm in rosette diameter, with a height of about 10 cm.
Eonium - care and cultivation
Temperature: Moderate in summer; in extreme heat, the stems become exposed faster from below. In autumn-winter period of rest at a temperature of 10-12 ° C, at least 8 ° C, with a dry content. In summer, it is better to keep it outdoors on the balcony or in the garden. During wintering in warm conditions, it loses leaves and decorative attractiveness.
Lighting: Bright, intense lighting with direct sunlight, south and west windows may need shading from 12 to 15 hours (in the form of a mosquito net). Aeoniums love a lot of light and sun both in winter and summer.
Watering: Moderate in spring and summer, always after drying the earthen coma completely. It shrinks since autumn, and rarely watered in winter, after the ground dries out from above, wait 6-7 days with watering. This is approximately, you need to navigate with the frequency of watering by the rate of drying of the soil, and it should dry out quickly. For aeoniums and other fatty plants, watering should be such that the soil dries out completely for no longer than 2 days. If it dries longer, then you are either watering too much or the soil is too dense.
Fertilizer: From May to August, they are fed once a month with a special fertilizer for cacti and other succulents, with a high potassium content.
Air humidity: Aeoniums are resistant to dry air, do not need to be sprayed.
Transfer: Soil - 1 part of sod land, 1 part of leaf, 1 part of sand, 1/2 part of fine expanded clay (or coconut substrate). For adult and old plants, the sod soil is 2 parts. Young plants are transplanted annually, old in a year. After transplanting, watering is very careful - little by little, so as not to cause rotting of the roots. It is useful to add pieces of birch charcoal to the soil. Good drainage is a must.
Aeonium propagates by stem cuttings with a rosette of leaves. Cuttings or one sheet are simply stuck into dry soil, if necessary, secure with a paper clip or pebbles. Do not water and shade. In case of very hot weather, you can spray once in the morning or in the evening. Water the first time, literally from a teaspoon, you can in 7-10 days. You can find out that the cutting is rooted by the appearance of new leaves or the resumption of growth of the apical bud, then the shading can be removed and the young plant can be placed in a lighter place.
- The leaves are small, and the lower part of the stems is very bare - with insufficient watering, or when the pot is cramped and a transplant is needed. If at the same time the stem also stretches out, then this is from a lack of light.
- The rosette is loose, the leaves are long, they do not sit tightly, the whole plant is tilted to one side (towards the light source) - lack of sunlight.
- If a plant with green leaves begins to turn red on a sunny window, it must be shaded so as not to get burned.
- The leaves turn black and die off, the stems turn black and soften - with excessive watering, especially in a cool room.
- In winter, the leaves dry out and fall off if it is too dry and hot.
- The leaves of varietal aeoniums turn from dark purple to greenish - if there is not enough light.